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  • Department of Energy and Environment Division of Environmental System Analysis CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Gothenburg, Sweden 2014 Report no. 2014:3

    Environmental Impacts of Small Hydropower Plants -A Case Study of Bors Energi och Miljs Hydropower Plants Master of Science Thesis in the Master Degree Programme, Industrial Ecology MARIA STEINMETZ NATHALIE SUNDQVIST

  • REPORT NO. 2014:3

    Environmental Impacts of Small Hydropower Plants-A Case Study of Bors Energi och Miljs Hydropower Plants

    Masters Thesis within the Industrial Ecology Programme

    MARIA STEINMETZ & NATHALIE SUNDQVIST

    Department of Energy and EnvironmentDivision of Environmental System Analysis

    CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGYGothenburg, Sweden 2014

  • Environmental Impacts of Small Hydropower Plants

    -A Case Study of Bors Energi och Miljs Hydropower PlantsMARIA STEINMETZ & NATHALIE SUNDQVIST

    Maria Steinmetz & Nathalie Sundqvist, Gothenburg, 2014.

    Report No. 2014:3

    Department of Energy and EnvironmentDivision of Environmental System AnalysisChalmers University of TechnologySE-412 96 GothenburgSwedenTelephone + 46 (0)31-772 1000

    Cover:

    [The cover pictures show the four different hydropower plants owned by Bors Energi ochMilj. The image at the top left is Haby power station and the upper right picture shows Hultapower plant. The picture, which are at the bottom left shows Axelfors power plant and thepicture on the bottom right shows the tube that is at Hggrda power plant. Copyright BorsEnergi och Milj.]

    Chalmers ReproserviceGteborg, Sweden 2014

  • Environmental Impacts of Small Hydropower Plants-A Case Study of Bors Energi och Miljs Hydropower PlantsMasters Thesis within the Industrial Ecology ProgrammeMARIA STEINMETZ & NATHALIE SUNDQVISTDepartment of Energy and EnvironmentDivision of Environmental System AnalysisChalmers University of Technology

    Abstract

    The use of hydropower in the society has a long history that started more than 2000 years ago.In Sweden, the first hydropower plants used for producing electricity were commissioned inthe 1890s. The major expansion of hydroelectric power in Sweden took place in the 1940s-1970s. Today there are about 2000 hydropower plants in Sweden, accounting for in average45% of the electricity production. Of these 2000 hydropower plants a large majority are socalled small-scale hydropower plants.

    The aim of this Masters thesis is to do an environmental review of the four hydropower plantsowned by Bors Energi och Milj. The four hydropower plants, Haby, Hulta, Hggrda andAxelfors, were all built and commissioned in the first part of the 1900s in a time when therequirements on the companies to also take the environmental impacts into consideration weresmall. The four plants are small-scale hydropower plants and located in two tributaries toViskan, Slottsn and Hggn and in tran. In order to gain knowledge about the environmen-tal impacts hydropower plants can result in, the project started with a literature study wherescientific articles, reports and studies performed on hydropower plants were included. Alsoreports and previous studies performed about the four specific hydropower plants were lookedat. The information from the literature study was used together with the information about thehydropower plants in the analysis to do an environmental review of the hydropower plants.

    The analysis showed on how complex the impacts from hydropower on the environment areand that there are both direct and indirect impacts on the species living in the areas aroundthe hydropower plants. The main impacts proved to come from the migration barriers that thehydropower plants constitutes, the changes in the water flow due to the regulation of the plantsand especially the short-term regulation in Haby and Hulta, and the dry riverbeds that the di-version of the water has caused.

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  • The literature study included also different measures that can be performed in order to mitigateor avoid the environmental impacts hydropower plants are resulting in. For the hydropowerplants in this case, the focus should be on building fishways to that the species living in thestream can migrate as they could before the construction of the hydropower plants, start a min-imum flow in the original riverbeds so that once existing aquatic life can be restored and startto regulate the water flow so that follows a more natural patter. Bors Energi och Milj shouldalso perform biotope adjustments to improve spawning sites for the fish.

    The thing that mainly has hampered this environmental review was that information about theconditions at the sites before the construction were very limited due to the age of the plants. Ithas, however been possible to conclude that the four hydropower plants owned by Bors Energioch Milj have effects on the environment. The impacts are possible to avoid or mitigate bydifferent measures. The measures will result in costs but it is the only way to reduce the impactsthe hydropower plants have today.

    Keywords: Hydropower plant, environmental impacts, hydrological regime, migration barri-ers

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  • Miljpverkan frn Smskalig Vattenkraft-En Fallstudie av Bors Energi och Miljs VattenkraftverkExamensarbete inom Masterprogrammet Industrial EcologyMARIA STEINMETZ & NATHALIE SUNDQVISTInstitutionen fr Energi och MiljAvdelningen fr MiljsystemanalysChalmers Tekniska Hgskola

    Sammanfattning

    Vattenkraftens historia gr lngt bak i tiden och brjade redan fr ver 2000 r sedan. I Sverigebrjade vattenkraften att anvndas fr att producera elektricitet i slutet av 1800-talet. Denstora utbyggnaden av vattenkraften skedde mellan 1940-1970 och idag finns ver 2000 vat-tenkraftverk i Sverige. Av de 2000 vattenkraftverken r en stor majoritet s kallade smskaligavattenkraftverk. Tillsammans utgr idag den totala produktionen frn vattenkraftverken 45%av elektricitetsproduktionen.

    Syftet med examensarbetet var att underska vilken pverkan som de fyra vattenkraftverkensom Bors Energi och Milj ger har p miljn. De fyra vattenkraftverken, Haby, Hulta, Hg-grda och Axelfors r smskaliga vattenkraftverk och byggdes i brjan av 1900-talet, under entid d kraven p att undvika skador p miljn var sm eller obefintliga. Tre av vattenkraftverkenr belgna i biflden till Viskan, Slottsn och Hggn. Det fjrde vattenkraftverket r belgeti tran. Fr att f kunskap om de olika effekterna som vattenkraftverk har p miljn startadeprojektet med en litteraturstudie dr vetenskapliga artiklar och underskningar och rapporterom vattenkraftverk studerades. I litteraturstudien inkluderades ven rapporter och studier sombehandlade specifikt de omrden och miljn dr de fyra vattenkraftverken ligger. Informatio-nen frn litteraturstudien anvndes i analysen fr att kunna dra slutsatser om den miljpverkansom vattenkraftverken resulterar i.

    Analysen visade hur komplex frgan om miljpverkan frn vattenkraftverk r med direkt ochindirekt pverkan p ekosystemen som de fyra vattenkraftverken ligger i. De faktorer somvisade sig ha strst inverkan p miljn var de vandringshinder som vattenkraftverken utgr ochsom hindrar arterna i vattendragen frn att rra p sig s som de en gng har kunnat, de n-dringar i vattenfldet som regleringen har orsakat och frmst d korttidsregleringen i Haby ochHulta samt de torrfror som avledningen av vattenfldet frn den ursprungliga vattenfran harorsakat.

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  • Litteraturstudien inkluderade ocks olika tgrder som kan genomfras fr att undvika ellerminska den miljpverkan som vattenkraftverken resulterar i. Fr vattenkraftverken i det hrfallet borde fokus ligga p att bygga fiskvgar s att de arter som lever i vattendragen kan van-dra i vattendragen utan att stta p konstgjorda hinder, minimiflden skall slppas i torrfrors att det liv som en gng fanns dr kan komma tillbaka och regleringen av vattenfldena skallanpassas s att de mer fljer de naturliga variationerna som finns. Biotoptgrder br ocksutfras s att lekomrden fr fiskar frbttras.

    Det som frmst har frsvrat arbetet med att avgra vattenkraftverkens pverkan p miljn ravsaknaden av information om hur frhllandena sg ut runt vattenkraftverken innan de byg-gdes. Det har dock varit mjligt att dra slutsatsen att de fyra vattenkraftverken har pverkan pmiljn och p vad som kan gra fr att minska denna pverkan. tgrderna kommer medfrakostnader men r det enda sttet att minska vattenkraftverkens pverkan. Se Appendix A fren mer utfrlig och vergripande sammanfattning p svenska.

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  • Contents

    Abstract i

    Sammanfattning iii

    Contents v

    List of Figures ix

    List of Tables xi

    Acknowledgments xiii

    1 Introduction 1

    1.1 Hydropower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    1.2 Directive/Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    1.2.1 Water Framework Directive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    1.2.2 Water Activity Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    1.2.3 Natura 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    1.3 Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

    1.4 Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    1.5 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    1.6 Problem Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    1.7 Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    2 Method 12

    3 Literature Review 14

    3.1 Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    3.1.1 General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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