England and France Develop14.3
But First.What were guilds?An association of people who had the same occupationWhy couldnt Christians lend money with interest?It was a sinWhat were living conditions like in medieval towns?Filthy- dumped waste outside and homes lacked fresh air
VikingsDuring earlier times, Britain was continually raided by Danish Vikings. These invaders were fierce. Special prayers in church were said God deliver us form the fury of the North-men. Alfred the Great (king from 871-899) finally expelled the Viking invaders.
England Land of the AnglesGradually Alfred the Great united the kingdom under one rule and named it England. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that invaded Britain.
Anglo-Saxons + VikingsIn 1016, Danish King Canute conquered England. Molded the Anglo-Saxons and Vikings into one people. In 1043, King Edward died, which left a dispute over the throne.
William the ConquerorThe invader was William, Duke of Normandy, who became William the Conqueror.Normandy had already been conquered by the Vikings. William the Conqueror was a Viking descendant.
William the Conqueror invaded England and claimed the English crown. He was ambitious and tough.He was great in body and strong, tall in stature but not ungainlyIn speech he was fluent and persuasive, being skilled at all times making clear his will.
Battle of HastingsHarold Godwinson, was an Anglo-Saxon who also claimed the English throne. Harold was killed by an arrow in his eye. William declared all of England his personal property.
Harold GodwinsonWilliam the Conqueror
William the Conquerors descendants owned land both in Normandy and in England. The English King Henry II expanded territory by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Henry and Eleanor
Two goals1) Keep and add onto their French lands. 2) Strengthen their power over the nobles and the Church.
Eleanor of AquitaineVery remarkable womanWife of two kingsMother of two kings
Eleanor married Louis VII of France when the Second Crusade began. In 1147, she went with him to the Holy Land.Shortly after, her marriage was annulled. BUT! She was able to keep land she owned in France
King Louis VII of France
Then she married Henry II They had four sons. Two became English KingsRichard the LionheartedJohn
King JohnRichard the Lionhearted
King Henry IIRuled England from 1154-1189He strengthened the royal courtsCollected taxesSettled lawsuitsPunished crimesIntroduced the idea of a jury. A jury in medieval England was a group of loyal people of the accused who answered questions about the facts of a case.
Common LawOver the centuries, case by case, the rulings of Englands royal judges formed a unified body of law that became known as common law. Today these principles of English common law are the basis for law in many countries, including the U.S.
King JohnJohn became king after both Henry II and Richard the Lionhearted died. He ruled from 1199-1216Failed as a military leaderNicknamed John SoftswordLost Normandy and lands in France to the French.
King Johns CharacterMean to his subjectsTried to squeeze money out of his peopleRaised taxes to an all-time high to finance his wars. His nobles finally revolted against him.
The Magna CartaOn June 15, 1215, the nobles forced King John to sign the most celebrated document in English History. The Magna Carta (Great Charter) guaranteed basic, political rights. No taxation without representationJury trialProtection of the lawThese are now considered basic, legal rights in many countries, including the U.S.
Why is the Magna Carta such a big deal? Its important because we are seeing the kings power becoming limited. The king can no longer do whatever he wants. The king also has to follow the rules of the Magna Carta
King Edward IIn 1295, King Edward I wanted to hang onto the last bit of remaining French land, therefore he need to raise taxes to finance the war.
Parliament is createdEdward summoned citizens of wealth and property (called burgesses) and knights to serve as a legislative group. The creation of Parliament is another important step in limiting the Kings power and moving toward a democratic government.
Parliament strengthensOver the next century, the king called the knights and burgesses whenever a new tax was needed. Parliament eventually split off into the House of Lords (nobles and bishops) and the House of Commons (commoners).
Capetian Dynasty rules FranceAfter the breakup of Charlemagnes empire, French counts and dukes ruled their lands independently under the feudal system. By the year 1000, France was divided into 30 feudal territories. After the last Carolingian ruler died, Hugh Capet, an undistinguished duke, took his place.
Hugh CapetThe Capet family only ruled a small territory, but at its heart stood Paris. The Capetian Dynasty of French kings ruled France from 987-1328. They eventually extended their power to unite all of France.
Philip II (Philip Augustus)One of the most powerful Capetian kings.Ruled from 1180-1223Became king at age 15He set out to weaken the power of the English king.Had little success against Henry II or Richard the Lionhearted, but when King John took over, it was another story.
Phillip earned the name Augustus from the Latin word meaning Majestic. He seized Normandy from King John in 1204 and in two years had gained other territories. By the end of Phillips reign, he had tripled his land.
Louis IXPhilip IIs grandsonRuled from 1226-1270Made Frances central government even stronger. Created a French appeals court
Louis IX was known as the ideal king. After his death, he was made a saint by the Catholic Church.
Philip IVRuled from 1285-1314Involved in a quarrel with the pope in 1302The pope refused to allow priests to pay taxes to the king. Philip disputed the right of the pope to control church affairs in his kingdom.
The French king also called a meeting with his lords and bishops when he needed support for his policies. To win wider support against the pope, Philip IV decided to allow commoners in this meeting.
Estates-GeneralIn France, church leaders were known as the First EstateGreat lords were the Second EstateThe commoners that Philip invited to participate became known as the Third Estate. The whole meeting was called the Estates-General.