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Eagelson , P.S, 1991

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Eagelson , P.S, 1991 . Evap. ANNUAL GLOBAL FLUX 577. All Blue figures in thousands of km 3. ATMOSPHERE. Precip . 12.9. 0.001%. 16%. 84%. 23%. 77%. OCEANS. CONTINENTS. 1,338,000. 47,660. Global Runoff 7%. 97%. 2.999%. +7%. -7%. ATMOSPHERE. 484.7. 12.9. 92.3. 444.3. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Eagelson , P.S, 1991

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Eagelson, P.S, 1991.ATMOSPHEREOCEANSCONTINENTS1,338,00012.947,66097%2.999%0.001%ANNUALGLOBALFLUX577Precip.Evap.84%16%77%23%-7%+7%Global Runoff 7%All Blue figuresin thousands ofkm3.ATMOSPHEREOCEANSCONTINENTS1,338,00012.947,660484.792.3444.3132.740.4WATER BALANCE APPROACHInput = Output +/- Change in StorageListListListVolume of Store = 10 ballsInput = 1 ballper timeperiodOutput = 1ball per timeperiod??

Input = Output . No change in StorageWHAT ARE RESIDENCE TIMES?Average number of samplings requiredVolume of Store = 20 ballsInput = 1 ballper timeperiodOutput = 1ball per timeperiod??

CHANGE VOLUME OF STOREVolume of Store = 10 ballsInput = 2 ballsper timeperiodOutput = 2balls per timeperiod????

CHANGE RATES OF INPUT AND OUTPUT

2760 yr= 1,338,000,000 (km3)/ 484,680 (km3 yr-1)Basic time step over which we are completing the accounting.

Volume = 47,659,600 km3Input rate = Precipitation (23%)Output rate = Evaporation (16%) + Runoff (7%)Average rate = (23 + (16+7))/2 = 23% of 577,000132,710 km3 per year Avg. Residence = 47,659,600 / 132,710 = 359 years

Volume = 12,900 km3Input rate = Evap (oceans) (84%) + Evap (continents) (16%)Output rate = Prec. (oceans) (77%) + Prec. (continent) (23%)Average rate = ((84+16) + (77 +23))/2 = 100% of 577,000577,000 km3 per year Avg. Residence = 12,900 / 577,000 = 0.02 yrs (7.3 days)

1. Evaporation driven by energy from the Sun, raises water vapor into the atmosphere, renewing the potential energy of the water, and removing most of the dissolved materials inn the water 2. Rising air cools and vapor condenses, releasing energy to atmosphere and forming clouds. Under the correct conditions, the water drops formed will descend under the influence of gravity (kinetic energy) onto the landscape. 3. Water moving over and through the landscape uses both its kinetic energy and propensity to dissolves chemicals, to shape the landscape. Rivers, glaciers, caves, groundwater etc. 4. This kinetic and chemical energy given to the water by the Sun, through the process of evaporation is lost once it reaches sea level or some local datum, like a lake. GLOBAL SIGNIFICANCE OF RESIDENCE TIMES

Volume (km3x103)Average Residence TimesSTORESOceansLand Snow and ice Groundwater Freshwater lakes Inland Seas Soil moisture RiversAtmosphereBiosphere1,338,000.0 24,064.0 23,400.0 91.0 85.0 17.5 2.1 12.9 1.1~ 4000 yearsdays -10,000 yrs2 weeks-10,000 yrs~ 10 yrsdays- year~ 2 weeks~ 10 days~ 1 weekThe shorter the smaller the time step (hour, day, month, year) over which you are accounting, the more stores need to be consideredTime and Space scales of studies usually related. Small area , short time step, large area, along time stepWHICH STORES CONSIDERED WHEN?Unless huge lakes or glaciers present

ST. MARYS RIVER, SW. PIER, MICHIGANIMPACT OF LONG-LASTING STORE

Stow, Lamon, Kratz and Sellinger, 2008. Eos, 89, 41, p. 389-390ContinentPrecipitation (mm)Evaporation(mm)Runoff (mm)Europe790507283Asia740416324Africa740587153North America756418339South America1600910685Australasia791511280Antarctica1650165Source: Shiklomanov (1990)WATER BALANCE EQUATIONON A CONTINENTAL SCALEInput = Output +/- Change in StoragePrecipitation = { Evaporation + Runoff } +/ Change in StorageAssume S 0 in Long Run

Source: Shiklomanov (1990)

Data provided by Mario MightyREGIONMean AnnualRunoff (mm)Average CoefficientOf VariationWorld6100.43North Africa2000.31South Africa2100.78Asia6200.38N. America10500.35S. America6700.35Europe4600.29South Pacific12900.25Australia4200.70MEASURES OF GLOBAL VARIABILITY IN FLOW.Source: McMahon, T. A., B. L. Finlayson, A. T. Haines, and R. Srikanthan,1992: Global RunoffContinental Comparisons of AnnualFlows and Peak Discharges. Catena Verlag Paperback, 166 ppCoefficient of Variation = standard deviation/mean

Big value represents relatively high variability from year to year (inter-annual variability)REGIONMean AnnualRunoff (mm)Average CoefficientOf VariationAverage ratio of largest annual flow to the annual meanWorld6100.432.2North Africa2000.311.8South Africa2100.783.5Asia6200.382.0N. America10500.352.0S. America6700.352.1Europe4600.291.7South Pacific12900.251.5Australia4200.703.1MEASURES OF GLOBAL VARIABILITY IN FLOW.Source: McMahon, T. A., B. L. Finlayson, A. T. Haines, and R. Srikanthan,1992: Global RunoffContinental Comparisons of AnnualFlows and Peak Discharges. Catena Verlag Paperback, 166 ppRatio of the discharge of the biggest flow in a year to the average flow in the entire year.

Big values mean that the biggest flow with in a year (intra-annual) tend to be extremely large in comparison to the other flowREGIONMean AnnualRunoff (mm)Average CoefficientOf VariationAverage ratio of largest annual flow to the annual meanMean Annual Flood (m3s-1km-2)Coefficient of variation of log of annual floodsWorld6100.432.20.440.28North Africa2000.311.80.050.18South Africa2100.783.50.340.46Asia6200.382.00.300.24N. America10500.352.00.850.25S. America6700.352.10.160.14Europe4600.291.70.120.17South Pacific12900.251.51.210.22Australia4200.703.10.450.45MEASURES OF GLOBAL VARIABILITY IN FLOW.Source: McMahon, T. A., B. L. Finlayson, A. T. Haines, and R. Srikanthan,1992: Global RunoffContinental Comparisons of AnnualFlows and Peak Discharges. Catena Verlag Paperback, 166 pp

Higher Mean; Higher VariabilityLower Mean; Lower VariabilityLower Mean; High VariabilityR = P - EPERLand Use Land Cover

Higher ET as trees do not lose leaves

Lower ET as trees lose leaves

JONGLEI CANAL

JONGLEI = DRAINING THE EVERGLADES?Pielke 2001

BIOTIC PUMP

CondensationWater as liquidWater as vaporUpward motionCoolingDecline in atmosphericPressure as Water Vapor leaves column of gasses

INLANDPrecipitation Declining ExponentiallyBIOTIC PUMP

CondensationWater as liquidUpward motionCoolingDecline in atmosphericPressure as Water Vapor leaves column of gasses

PressureGradientBIOTIC PUMP

CondensationWater as liquidWater as vaporUpward motionCoolingDecline in atmosphericPressure as Water Vapor leaves column of gasses

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