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Digestive System Anatomy & Physiology Anatomy & Physiology

Digestive System Anatomy & Physiology. Digestive Processes

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Text of Digestive System Anatomy & Physiology. Digestive Processes

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  • Digestive System Anatomy & Physiology
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  • Digestive Processes
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  • Digestive Organs
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  • Mesentary
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  • Peritonitis
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  • Oral Anatomy Lateral View
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  • Cadaver Midsaggital Section of Oral Structures
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  • Oral Anatomy Anterior View
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  • Tongue Anatomy
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  • Taste Bud Anatomy
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  • Salivary Glands
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  • Cadaver ___ Gland
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  • Tooth Anatomy
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  • Tooth Eruption
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  • Impacted Molar
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  • Gingiva
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  • Universal Tooth Numbering System
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  • Tooth Faces Lingual (Nearest Tongue)Lingual (Nearest Tongue) Facial (Farthest from tongue)Facial (Farthest from tongue) Mesial (Closest to the incisors)Mesial (Closest to the incisors) Distal (Farthest from the incisorsDistal (Farthest from the incisors Occlusal (Grinding surfaceOcclusal (Grinding surface
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  • Splanchnic Circulation 25% of Cardiac Output
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  • Endoscope
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  • Larynx
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  • Esophageal Reflux
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  • G.E.R.D. (GastroEsophageal Reflux Disease)
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  • Gastric Fundus
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  • Gastritis due to Helicobacter Pylori
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  • Gastric Diverticulum
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  • Gastric Polyps
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  • Gastric Carcinoma
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  • Duodenal Mucosa
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  • Duodenal Ulcer
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  • Proctologist
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  • Testing for Occult Blood
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  • Colonoscopy
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  • Colonoscopy Administration
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  • Caecal Diverticula
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  • Descending Colon
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  • Tapeworms
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  • Ulcerative Colitis (Sigmoid Colon & Rectum)
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  • Rectum
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  • Anal Hemorrhoids (Piles) Caused by Inflammation of the Superior & Inferior Hemorrhoid Veins
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  • Scope Comparison
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  • Barium Enema
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  • Colostomy & Stoma
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  • Colostomy Bag
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  • Peristalsis
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  • 27 Year Old Male
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  • 81 Year Old Male
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  • Swallowing
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  • Gastric Regions
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  • Gastric Anatomy
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  • Gastric Cells
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  • Gastric Cell FXNs Goblet cells produce alkaline mucusGoblet cells produce alkaline mucus Mucus Neck cells produce acidic mucusMucus Neck cells produce acidic mucus Parietal cells produce HCl & Intrinsic FactorParietal cells produce HCl & Intrinsic Factor Chief cells produce pepsinogenChief cells produce pepsinogen Enteroendocrine cells produce gastrin, pepsin, cholecystokinin, & somatostatinEnteroendocrine cells produce gastrin, pepsin, cholecystokinin, & somatostatin
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  • Gall Bladder & Pancreas Empty Contents into Duodenum
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  • Liver & Pancreas Secretions
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  • Liver FXNs Synthesizes bile (bile salts, biliruben, & cholesterol)Synthesizes bile (bile salts, biliruben, & cholesterol) Stores glucose as glycogenStores glucose as glycogen Stores fat soluble vitamins ADEKStores fat soluble vitamins ADEK
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  • Gall Bladder FXN Stores bileStores bile CCK contracts gall bladder secretion of pancreatic juice & relaxation of the sphincter of OddiCCK contracts gall bladder secretion of pancreatic juice & relaxation of the sphincter of OddiPathophysiology Gall stones too much cholesterol or too few bile salts resulting in cholesterol crystal accumulationGall stones too much cholesterol or too few bile salts resulting in cholesterol crystal accumulation Obstructional jaundice bile duct becomes obstructed & bilirubin increases in bloodObstructional jaundice bile duct becomes obstructed & bilirubin increases in blood
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  • Gallstones
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  • Bile Salt
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  • Pancreas FXN Secretes basic pancreatic juice (pH 7.5-8.0)Secretes basic pancreatic juice (pH 7.5-8.0) Pancreatic Juice (p.j.) Bicarbonate rich p.j. neutralizes HCl in the duodenum (Stimulated by secretin when HCl enters the duodenum)Bicarbonate rich p.j. neutralizes HCl in the duodenum (Stimulated by secretin when HCl enters the duodenum) Enzyme rich p.j. stimulated by CCK when fatty or protein rich foods enter the duodenumEnzyme rich p.j. stimulated by CCK when fatty or protein rich foods enter the duodenumNote Hormones released in inactive form so they dont digest the pancreasHormones released in inactive form so they dont digest the pancreas
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  • Accessory Organ Ducts & Sphincter
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  • H2OH2O CO 2 H 2 CO 3 H+H+ Na + HCO 3 - Na + Blood capillary Pancreatic acinar cell Pancreatic duct Pancreatic secretion of NaHCO 3 (sodium bicarbonate) [simplified]
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  • Water & Mineral Digestion
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  • Absorption of Vitamins A,D,E,K fat soluble (diffuse into blood)A,D,E,K fat soluble (diffuse into blood) B & C water soluble (diffuse into blood)B & C water soluble (diffuse into blood) B12 requires intrinsic factor for diffusionleads to pernicious anemiaB12 requires intrinsic factor for diffusionleads to pernicious anemia Electrolytes (Na +, K +, HCO 3 -, Cl - )Electrolytes (Na +, K +, HCO 3 -, Cl - ) Iron binds to ferratin in mucosal cells & transferrin in the blood for transportIron binds to ferratin in mucosal cells & transferrin in the blood for transport Calcium PTH increases ionic calcium & vitamin D aids in absorptionCalcium PTH increases ionic calcium & vitamin D aids in absorption
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  • Lipid Emulsification
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  • Lipid Digestion
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  • Carbohydrate Digestion
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  • Na/K Symport
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  • Protein Digestion
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  • Brush Border
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  • Villi
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  • Small Intestine
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  • Large Intestine with Mesentery
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  • Cecum
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  • Anal Sphincter Control
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  • Hormonal Control of Digestion (Produced in stomach) Gastrin - HCl secretion & gastric emptyingGastrin - HCl secretion & gastric emptying Serotonin Contracts gastric muscleSerotonin Contracts gastric muscle Histamine HCl release from parietal cellsHistamine HCl release from parietal cells Pepsinogen inactive form of pepsin (HCl activated) catabolyzes proteinPepsinogen inactive form of pepsin (HCl activated) catabolyzes protein Somatostatin Inhibits:Somatostatin Inhibits: gastric secretions gastric secretions gastric emptying gastric emptying pancreatic secretions pancreatic secretions intestinal absorption intestinal absorption gall bladder contraction (bile release) gall bladder contraction (bile release)
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  • Hormonal Control of Digestion (Produced in Duodenum) Secretin - pancreatic juice secretion & bile outputSecretin - pancreatic juice secretion & bile output Cholecystokinin - pancreatic juice output, contracts gall bladder, & relaxes sphincter of OddiCholecystokinin - pancreatic juice output, contracts gall bladder, & relaxes sphincter of Oddi Gastric inhibitory peptide inhibits gastric secretion & motilityGastric inhibitory peptide inhibits gastric secretion & motility Vasoactive intestinal peptide dilates intestinal capillaries & inhibits HCl productionVasoactive intestinal peptide dilates intestinal capillaries & inhibits HCl production
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  • Hormonal Control of Digestion (Produced by pancreas) Trypsinogen Inactive form of trypsin (activated by enterokinase) catabolyzes protein to peptidesTrypsinogen Inactive form of trypsin (activated by enterokinase) catabolyzes protein to peptides Amylase catabolyzes polysaccharidesAmylase catabolyzes polysaccharides Lipase catabolyzes lipidsLipase catabolyzes lipids Carboxypeptidase catabolyzes protein to amino acidsCarboxypeptidase catabolyzes protein to amino acids Chymotrypsin catabolyzes protein to peptidesChymotrypsin catabolyzes protein to peptides
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  • Metabolic states The absorptive state During & for several hours after a meal Insulin glucose uptake by cells (from blood) glycogenesis in liver cells lipogenesis in fat cells lipolysis in fat cells Continues until...
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  • Metabolic states The postabsorptive state Begins several hours after a meal Glucagon glycogenolysis gluconeogenesis lipolysis in fat cells lipogenesis in fat cells
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  • Feces may indicate health issues Motility / timing Diarrhea Constipation Color / consistency Gray = lack of bile Black/tarry = bleeding (upper) Black = PeptoBismol Red = bleeding (lower)
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  • Digestion of Alcohol