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Abstracts/Lung Cancer IO (1993) 123-150 125
Epidemiology, Dow Chemical Company. IBO3 Building, Midland, MI 48674. Am 1 Ind Med 1992;22:69-83.
Cohort mortality and nested casa-control shtdies were conducted involving 2,901 mm employed 1 year or more bdween 1940 and 1986 at any of four California facilities of P major chemical company. Employeesexperienced fewerdeaths fi-omeachofthemajorcausesthnn were expected ba.xd on U.S., Gxlifomia, and local county mortality rate.Respintorycpncerw~signifiuntlyelevstedinonesocioecooomic category comprised of operators (SMR = 157, 95% CI = 109-220). The 34 cases who died from respiratory cancer nod 136 matched controls. all of whom were operators, were included in a nested case- control study. Departments in which subject&ad woked were. grouped into 13 worL~gnmentorproductcptegoriesbynn industrial hygienist without knowledge of case-control status. Smoking habits and other occupational exposurea were asc&ained by telephone interview from subjectsorsurmg~te-re+ondesponders. Asexpected, cunmtcigarettesm&inoking w~stmnglyrelatcdtorespintory-~. ARe.radjustmmtforsmoking, cases were. significantly more likely than controls to have ever worked in one of the 13 work areas (supervision, services, and business support). However, no dose- response relationship was evident with duration of employment in this work prep and the aeputmeats involved were associated with plant security and not chemical production. Results weresimilrutienn IS-yearlateacyperiodwsassumsd. These findings suggest that the excess of rwpiratory cancer mortality among operators was most likely due to differences in cigarette smoking or other factors not ascertained, rather than to * specific occupational exposure.
Dietary intake and risk of lung - in women who never smoked Candelon EC, Stockwell HG, Armstrong AW, F’inkha PA. Depr. of Epi&miology/Biostatktics. College of Public Health, Uniwmiry of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612~3&75. Nutr Cancer 1992; 17963-70.
A casee-colltrol shuly ~98 conducted to examine the influarce of dietary factors on the risk of developing lung cancer among women who have never smoked cigarettes. This study included 124 cases of histologically confirmed urcinoIM of the lung and 263 community- basal controls. Dietary data werscollected utilizing the reduced version of the National Cancer Institute (Block) food frequency questionnaire. The results of this analysis. adjusted for age, education, and total caloriea. indicated a stmnn motective effect associated with total
q&tile of vege&le consumption experienced the greatest risk with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.2, [confidence inte& (CI) 0.1~3.51. The effect of alI vegeteblea wmbii was gmater than that of green end yellowvsgstnblssllane(bighestquMileOR0.4, ClO.2-0.7). Similarly, the protective effect of total carotene (highest quartile OR 0.3, CI 0. I- 0.6)[email protected] ORO.4,CIO.2-0.8). Retiwlintakcwasnotassociatedwithadecmased risk of lung cancer in our populatiw. llwe was an inverse association bshueeDlung-risk~dviEpminCiahle,vrhichwnsnotsignificnnt, although a statistiully significant trend was noted.
ormpstionrl exposure to c&tdliae silica and lung cawer Pairon JC, Jawand MC, Bignon I, Bmchwd P. ConsvUotion & Patbologk Profuss., Service de Pneumokgie. C. H. I., 40, Awue & l&dun, 94010 Creteil Ceder. Arch Md Pmf Med Tnv Sear Sot 1992;53: 257-74.
Cristallii silica is an ubiquitous miner& pmmt either es e nahuel contaminant (ores...) or as an industrial material (abrasives...). Its fibrogenic propsrcies have beea msponsible for a large pmpo&m of occupational respiratory di-. Some recat data have raised the hypothesis of a carcinogenic effect. These data have bkn recently reviewed by the International Agency for Reamrcb on Cancer: the expsrCspmpossdtocl~ifysiliuinthegroupU~Mycrrcinogaic to human). Howeva accordiig to some controvnsial discwnia~~ and new~ts,sfurtber~nisll~ussful.‘Ihcresultsofinvitro studies have sugssstsd some weak gmotoxic effect while result8 of in vivostudiesconfirmsda~~ce~t.Theovonll~daniologicrl dataMmorecontilsing.Ia&ed,tbeonin~ iah-shdie.
problem of associated confounding parameters (tobacco, other minerals, metals, organic compounds, etc.). Finally, it appears that non-asbestos pneumoconiosis (rather than pure silicosis) is associated with * lung cancerexcess.‘Ibeprecise~~smsofthisexeess~iIlnquire~~er studies. Prescat data suggest that the control of the tibrogeaic risk will be efficient to control P potential carcinogenic risk. The data also underline that efforts must be pursued in order to control tobacco consumption.
Lung tumor incidence after intrabronchial arbninistration of the nonionic contrast agent met&amide Baker DG, Alford BA, Feldman PS. DeputmmrofRadiology, Virginia Univ. Health Science Ctr., Box 383, Chorlottesvilk, VA 22908. Invest Radio1 1992;27:525-8.
Ration&and Objediw. Metrimmide hasbeen used for examination ofthegastrointestinaltrPctMdtrscheobmnchialtreeofinfPmls. Contrast agents may enter the lungs during such examinations. The current shuly wasuadertPkentodeterrninewhethertherewould~~y l~terpulmowy effects when metrizamide was administered to the lungs of weanling mice. Merh&. One hundred fifty mice (18-21 days old). divided into groups, received either 75 L of metrizamide, using the manufacturer’s diluent (190 mg iodiie [I]/mL), or saline solution administered to tbe lungs by Injection into the trachea. The mice were observed for the duration of their lives. Moribund animals were killed. At death, all animals underwent necropsy. The lungs were fixed in formahn, and histologic sections were examined for pathologic changes. Resulrs. The incidence of lung hlmors was increased (P < .05) in the lungs of mice receiving metrilamide compared with those receiving saline. Eighteen percent of the lung tumors in tbe metrizunide-treated mice were lymphomas. a histologic type not found in the saline-treated controls. Conclurionr. A hypothesis proposing that metriamide may be an rnitiator of carcinogenic transformation rather than e carcinogen was developed.
Martin G, Steyn K, Yach D. Ewential Health Rutwch Group, South ~a~Mal.Rwca~Cowteil,Pam~ki. SAfrMedJ 1992:82:241- 5.
The opinions of P representative sample of adult South Africans about the et&&s of smoking on health and their attitudes tmwld tob&%a control measues were surveyed by - of an interviewer-administeaecl questionnaire. Sweaty-five per cat of the nspotwJezds were bleck and 55,3 % were femele. More than 50% of blacks and Asians (61.7% end 53,296) were non-smokers, whereas 52.1% of ‘colacrrds’ were c-t smokers and 23.8% of whites en- smokers. The majority of smokers (68.5 I) acknowledged the hermfel effectsofdirrctsmokinOIldelugsr~~geofnw-Mdeexamdters (79,796 end 77% respectively) shared this view. A similar trend was observed in beliefs about passive smoking. Seventy-five per cent of participants felt that tobacco sales to minors should be benned end 55.8% thou&t that texes on tobacco ~rcxhuzts should be imxased.
cmnpmies tium spcmsariog spotting evmts. Most rtiespkdfa~ts felt thst tobacco advertising should be banned ora television (59.7%). radio (60,1%). inaew~pers(58,4%),onbillboprds(58,7%)~d~cineme~ (59,316). The nrsults indicate that in the main the public supports the inhuductior~ of the -ma ptqwxed in the dnR Tobacco Products Control Act and evea moan extensive legislation to control tobecco amsunption. This augurs well for future strategies aimed at tobacco coahul in South Africa.
~re~andl~cancwinmmnw&ngwanen Bmwn.wn RC, Alavmja MCR. Hack ET, Lay TS. DCDPHP. Missouri Depaimeni of Health. 201 Bvsinrss Loqp m Wur. Columbia. MO 6.5203. Am J Public Halth 1992; 82: 1525-30.
Objeuiw. ‘fhec.euseoflttng wtweremongnotwmokereare not CISUIY undastood. To fwtherevahute ths relation bshvsso pssive