Crude Oil Treatment Separation

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    ENSPMFormationIndustrie-

    IFPTrainingPRO01198 CRUDE OIL TREATMENT - Separation

    1- Well head effluents

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    WELL HEAD EFFLUENTS

    WELLHEADWELLHEADEFFLUENTSEFFLUENTS

    GASGAS

    OILOIL

    WATERWATER

    FORMATION SAND AND SILTFORMATION SAND AND SILT

    COLLOID STATE CLAYCOLLOID STATE CLAY

    CORROSION PRODUCTCORROSION PRODUCT

    WAXESWAXES

    ASPHALTENESASPHALTENESMINERAL CRYSTALSMINERAL CRYSTALS

    NaClNaCl CaCO3 BaSO4 SrSO4CaCO3 BaSO4 SrSO4

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    SEPARATION CHAIN

    EMULSIONEMULSION

    INTERMINGLED WATER/OILINTERMINGLED WATER/OIL

    FOAMSFOAMSLIQUID DROPLETSLIQUID DROPLETS

    IN GASIN GASWELLHEAD EFFLUENTSWELLHEAD EFFLUENTS

    CONDENSATECONDENSATE

    FREE WATERFREE WATER

    GASGAS--LIQUIDLIQUID

    SEPARATIONSEPARATION

    GAS TREATMENTGAS TREATMENT

    DEHYDRATIONDEHYDRATION

    CONDENSATECONDENSATE

    RECUPERATIONRECUPERATION

    EMULSIONEMULSIONTREATMENTTREATMENT

    WATERWATER

    EMULSIONEMULSION

    GASGAS

    WATERWATER

    OPERATIONS SOMETIMESOPERATIONS SOMETIMESCARRIED OUTCARRIED OUT

    in 1 PROCESS EQUIPMENTin 1 PROCESS EQUIPMENT

    export

    crude

    OILOIL--WATERWATERSEPARATIONSEPARATION

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    SOURCE OF WATER

    WATER AND OIL ZONES IN RESERVOIRWATER AND OIL ZONES IN RESERVOIR

    OILOIL

    OILOIL

    * Active Water Reservoir* Active Water Reservoir* Water Injection : Injection of 1* Water Injection : Injection of 1--2 volumes of water2 volumes of water

    Production of 1Production of 1--5 volumes of water per oil volume5 volumes of water per oil volume

    * Faulty Cementing Job* Faulty Cementing Job

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    SOURCE OF SALT

    SALTSALT

    RESERVOIR WATERRESERVOIR WATER

    INJECTED WATER (SEA WATER)INJECTED WATER (SEA WATER)

    *If Salt Content>10mg/l , Reservoir Water INGRESS*If Salt Content>10mg/l , Reservoir Water INGRESS

    Produced Water Not Detected; only salt content is measuredProduced Water Not Detected; only salt content is measured

    *HASSI MESSAOUD : CAMBRIEN WATER 370g/l*HASSI MESSAOUD : CAMBRIEN WATER 370g/l

    Low Water CutLow Water Cut HIGH SALT CONTENTHIGH SALT CONTENT

    0,1%0,1% SALT CONTENT 370 mg/lSALT CONTENT 370 mg/l

    *Sometimes HIGH SALT CONTENT without WaterEAST BAGDAD As much as 265ppm of salt ***

    * Same for Hassi Messaoud - Fateh - ABK -Zadco

    This Phenomenon is limited in Time

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    OIL , BSW and GOR EVOLUTION WITH TIME

    Production

    106 m3 / an3

    2

    1

    GORGOR

    OILOIL

    BSW

    %

    3030

    2020

    1010

    300300

    200200

    100100

    YEARS

    BSWBSW

    11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 1010 1111 1212

    GOR

    difficulty to design separation equipment

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    CONTRACTUAL WATER AND SALT CONTENTS

    TRANSPORTERSTRANSPORTERS : LIMITATION FOR WATER CONTENT: LIMITATION FOR WATER CONTENT

    *PIPELINE*PIPELINE -- PIPE OVER LOADINGPIPE OVER LOADING

    BSW

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    1 ELECTROSTATIC DESALTER1 ELECTROSTATIC DESALTER SALT CONTENT

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    DEHYDRATION

    TO WITHDRAW WATER DISPERSED IN CRUDE STRESSINGTHE WATER CONTENT

    DESALTING

    TO GET THE SALT SPECIFICATION WHEN THIS IS NOT THEDIRECT RESULT OF COMPLYING THE WATER SPEC.

    DESALTING IS A DEHYDRATION TRT SETPREVIOUSLY WITH WASH WATER SOFTERTHAN RESERVOIR WATER

    DEHYDRATION/DESALTING

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    DEHYDRATION/DESALTING

    With Reservoir Water at 350 g/l expressed as NaCl equivalent

    0.1 % of Water Content 350 mg/l ( 123 PTB ) Salt Content

    Salt Content < 60 mg/l Water Content < 0.017 %

    SALINITY IS THE MOST RESTRICTING SPECIFICATION

    With Reservoir Water at 40 g/l expressed as NaCl equivalent

    0.1 % of Water Content 40 mg/l ( 14 PTB ) Salt Content

    Salt Content < 60 mg/l Water Content < 0.15 %

    WATER CONTENT IS THE MOST RESTRICTING SPEC.

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    2- Gas/liquid separation

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    GAS/LIQUID SEPARATION - Generalities

    Hydrocarbon reservoir :

    at reservoir conditions, generally one monophasic fluid

    at surface conditions (P &T decrease), different components appear :

    monophasic polyphasic (gas + liquid)

    hydrocarbon gas condensation of heavier hydrocarbons liquid

    water vapour liquid water

    THERMODYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR

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    TREATMENT UNIT

    AIM OF A TREATMENT UNIT

    to recover all the different constituents

    Process specific to each development

    to treat oil so that it is free of gas

    to produce a gas as dry as possible (no water nor heavy hydrocarbons)

    to remove water (and solids) from oil

    to remove oil and solids from water (Water Treatment specific courses)

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    Pr

    Pw

    Pf

    Pc

    Pr Reservoir

    Ps

    Storage Shipping

    Separation

    Hydrocarbon production scheme

    Pr: Reservoir pressure

    Pf: Bottomhole flowing

    pressure

    Pw: Wellhead pressure

    Pc: Choke pressure

    Ps: Processing pressure

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    Phase diagram

    P

    Liquid

    Pr

    Vapour

    T0

    Pf

    0 %

    100 %

    Ps

    Pc

    Pw

    Bubble Point

    mole % liquid

    30 %

    15 %5 %

    1 %

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    METHANE - ETHANE MIXTURE PHASE DIAGRAM

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    GAS PHASE ENVELOPPE SHAPE VERSUS GAS COMPOSITION

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    at Constant composition

    1. Flash process

    If T constant = flash liberation

    P1 V1T1

    P2 V2T2

    with P1 > P2

    P1 V1

    T1

    P2 V2

    T1

    P1 > P2

    P1 V1

    T1

    P2 V2

    T2

    P1 > P2T1 > T2

    If T varies = flash separation

    G1L1

    P1 T1

    G2L2

    P2 T2

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    total composition varies : there is draw off

    2. Differential process

    If T = constant = differential liberation

    P1 > P2

    G1

    L1

    G2

    L2

    Gi

    Li

    GS

    P1 T1 P2 T2

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    3. Composite process : combination of the two

    GLL G1L1 L2 GSLSG2

    PG TG PF TG P1 T1 P2 T2 Pa Ta

    DifferentialLiberation (T cst)

    Flash Flash Flash

    Reservoir Separators Storage

    PG

    PF

    P1

    P2

    Pa

    Ta T2 T1 TG

    P

    T

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    OPTIMAL SEPARATION PRESSURE IN HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION

    FIELDS IS AN APPLICATION OF PHASE EQUILIBRIUM IN

    THERMODYNAMICS

    AMOUNT OF LIQUID RECOVERED IS DEPENDENT OF THE

    COMPOSITE PROCESS

    SEPARATION EFFICIENCY

    YIELD (R) =