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Formation of Oil What is crude oil? Crude oil is a fossil fuel (non

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  • Formation of OilWhat is crude oil?

    Crude oil is a fossil fuel (non renewable)

    Something that takes along time to make and is used up faster than it is made. All the readily extractable resources will be used up in the futureNeed to find replacementsConflict between making petrochemicals and fuelsFractional distillationLPG





    Lubricating oils

    Fuel Oil

    Bitumen600C20CCrude oil can be separated into its useful fractions as they have different boiling pointsThe longer chain hydrocarbon has the higher boiling point because the intermolecular forces are stronger between long chain hydrocarbons compared to short chain hydrocarbons.

  • Problems Exploitation of oilEnvironmental transportationDamage to birds feathers causing deathUse of detergents to clean up oil slicks and consequent damage to wildlifePolitical UK dependent on oil and gas from politically unstable countriesFuture supply issuesSupply must meet demandCrackingPicking the right fuelTEA CUPSoxicitynergy valuevailabilityostsabilityollutiontorage

  • Why is the amount of fossil fuels being burnt increasing?Increasing world populationGrowth of use in developing countriesComplete combustionCH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O Incomplete combustion (some oxygen)CH4 + 1O2 CO + 2H2O

    Incomplete combustion (little oxygen)CH4 + O2 C + 2H2O Composition of CLEAN AIRCO2 produced by = taken in by Photosynthesis Respiration

    PROBLEM Burning Fossil Fuels Deforestation

  • Forming the atmosphere 2.11

    CO2 dissolves in oceans

  • Incomplete combustion of petrol and dieselin cars, lorries and busesSulphur in fossil fuels coal and oilOxides of nitrogen from petrol enginesOxides of nitrogen from petrol enginesPhotochemical smogCarbon monoxideAcid RainPollutionIn car engine: O2+N2 2NOCatalytic converters2CO + 2NO N2 + 2CO2 REMOVE CO

  • HYDROCARBONSAlkanes : CnH2n+2 SATURATED-only single covalent bonds between carbon atoms. Each carbon has 4 bonds - - - Each hydrogen one bondCH4C2H6C3H8C4H10C5H12C6H14Alkenes:CnH2n UNSATURATED-at least one double bond between carbon atoms.Test for UNSATURATION Add Bromine Water : Orange Colourless



  • PolymerisationMonomer PolymerADDITION POLYMERISATIONHigh TemperatureCatalyst

    THERMOPLASTICWeak INTERMOECULAR FORCESLow melting ptEasily Stretched

    THERMOSETTINGStrong (covalent or cross links) FORCESHigh Melting ptRigid

  • Gore-tex nylon laminated with PTFE/polyurethane membraneRain water;Wont fit through the holes.Gore-tex;Has millions of tiny holes in it.Sweat;Will fit through the holes.SKINMembrane too fragile without Nylon

  • CookingProtein (egg)Denatured permanently changes shapePotatoesEasier to digest - cell walls rupture resulting in loss of rigid structure and a softer texturestarch grains swell up and spread out.

    ADDITIVESAntioxidantsFood ColourFlavour enhancerEmulsifierHydrophobicWater hating attaches to oilHydrophilicWater loving attaches to water molecules MIXTURE = EMULSIONBaking Powder

    sodiumhydrogencarbonateSodium +carbonateCarbon +dioxidewater2NaHCO3Na2CO3CO2H2O++

  • Making esters catalystalcohol + organic acid ester + water sulfuric acidmethanol + butanoic methyl + water acid butanoateVolatile liquids evaporate easily.Weak attractive forces between particles easy to overcome attractionWhy does water NOT remove nail varnish?water-water attraction stronger than water-nail varnish attractionNail varnish attraction stronger than water-nail varnish attraction

  • Paint is a colloid mute

    Solid particles are mixed and dispersed with particles of a liquid but are not dissolved.Solvent liquid that suspends the other ingredients so it can be applied to a surface. It evaporates quickly so that the paint dries. Binding medium-Sticks pigment to the surfacePigment colour suspended in the solvent.Paints to dry the solvent must evaporate.Oil PaintOil is oxidised by OxygenEmulsions paint- the solvent is water.

    Thermochromic - Paints which change colour with a change in temperatureAcrylic paints can be added to give more of a range of colour changes

    Phosphorescent - absorb and store energy and release it as light over a period of time. (safer)

  • The Structure of the EarthLithosphere relatively cold and rigid outer part of the Earth (crust and upper part of the mantle)Tectonic plates less dense than the mantleMantle = cold and rigid just below the crust, hot and non-rigid at greater depths (able to move)THEORY OF PLATE TECTONICSEnergy transfer involving convection currents in the semi-rigid mantle cause the plates to move slowly.Oceanic crust is more dense than continental crustCollision leads to subduction and partial meltingPlates cooler at ocean margins so sink and pull plates down

    Development of Theory of plate tectonics Wegeners continental drift theory (1914) was not accepted by scientists at the time. New evidence in 1960s show ocean floor spreading. The theory was slowly accepted as subsequent research supported the theory

  • Volcanoesrunny lava fairly safe -produce iron-rich Basaltthick lava violent/explosive produce silica-rich RhyoliteGeologists study volcanoes - gather info. about Earths structure.Live near - volcanic soil very fertile.Igneous rocksSlower molten rock cools= larger crystalsDifficult to study the structure of the Earth:crust too thick to drill all the way throughScientists study seismic waves made by earthquakes or man-made explosions.Limestone sedimentaryMarble metamorphic limestone put through high temp. and pressureGranite - igneous

  • Thermal Decomposition of Limestonecalcium carbonate calcium oxide + carbon dioxide CaCO3 CaO + CO2

    Limestone + Clay = CementCement + sand + water + aggregate = concrete

    Reinforced concrete = composite material concrete + steel.

    Hardness Flexibility and strength

    Electrolyte = Cu(II)SO4(aq)Smart AlloysSmart alloys have unusual properties. Nitinol = nickel + titaniumshape memory alloy - bent out of shape, returns to original shape when heated or electric current passed through it

  • iron + water + oxygen hydrated iron(III) oxide

    SaltAcid RainIron Vs SteelSteel = harder, stronger, less likely to rustRecyclingEU law 85% of cars materials be recycled, >95% by 2015. Reduces amount of waste + natural resources usedHydrogen + nitrogen Ammonia 3H2(g) + N2(g) 2NH3(g)450C200atmIron catalystProduction costs energylabourraw materialsequipment rate of reaction.Economic considerationsoptimum conditions used - give lowest cost not necessarily fastest reaction or highest percentage yieldrate of reaction and percentage yield - high enough to make enough product each day.

  • H+ + OH- H2OAcid + alkali salt + waterNaming SaltsChloride - hydrochloric acid(HCl)Nitrate - nitric acid(HNO3)Sulphate - sulphuric acid(H2SO4) Phosphate - phosphoric acid

    Neutralisation equationsBases:NH3, NH4OH, KOH, NaOH, CuOcarbonates: Na2CO3, CaCO3Acid + carbonate salt + water + carbon dioxideFertilisersCrops grow faster+bigger-crop yields increased. Dissolve in water-absorb them through roots.Essential elements: N P KMaking a fertilisermeasuring cylinder measure volume of alkali solutionburette to add acid a little at a time until the alkali has been neutralisedfilter funnel to remove solid crystals of fertiliser after evaporating water from the neutral fertiliser solutionProblemstoo much fertiliser-pollute water suppliesEutrophication - not enough O2 dissolved in water for aquatic organisms to survive

  • 2Cl 2e Cl2 (oxidation)2H+ + 2e H2 (reduction)Hydrogen - manufacture ammonia and margarine (used to harden vegetable oils).

    Chlorine -kill bacteria make solventsmake plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC)make household bleach

    Ions not discharged make NaOH - used to make soap and household bleach.sodium hydroxide + chlorine sodium chloride + water + sodium chlorate2NaOH + Cl2 NaCl + H2O + NaClO

  • Rate of ReactionConcentration increases, particles become more crowdedincrease the collision frequency = more successful collisionsResult = increased rate of reaction. Temperature increases, particles gain KINETIC ENERGYmove around more quickly/ more energeticParticles collide more frequently with more energy more collisions per second more successful collisions

    Pressure - If reactants are gases you can increase the pressure. More particles per unit volume.Increased collisions frequency More successful collisionsIncreased rate of reaction.

    Limiting Reactant -reactant that is all used up at the end of the reactionamount of product formed directly proportional to amount of limiting reactant used. How much product is formed in a fixed time period (g/s or cm3/s)

  • Rates of ReactionCatalyst increases rate of reactionSmall amount needed to catalyse large amounts of reactantsUnchanged at the end of the reaction

    Surface Area larger surface area (smaller particles) More frequent collisionsMore successful collisionsIncreased rate of reactionFine Combustible powders - Anexplosionis a very fast react