Constructivist Model of Learning

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Constructivist Model of Learning. Learning is not the transfer of material from the head of the teacher to the head of the learner intact, (but) the reconstruction of material in the mind of the learner. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Constructivist Model of LearningLearning is not the transfer of material from the head of the teacher to the head of the learner intact, (but) the reconstruction of material in the mind of the learner.It is an idiosyncratic reconstruction of what the learnerthinks she understands, tempered by existing knowledge, beliefs, biases, and misunderstandings. Johnstone, A.H. (1997). Chemistry Teaching- Science or Alchemy? J. Chem. Educ., 74, 262 - 268.

  • XEventsObservationsInstructionsPerceptionFilter

    WorkingMemory

    Long Term MemoryStoringRetrievingInformation Processing ModelJohnstone, A.H. (1997). Chemistry Teaching- Science or Alchemy? J. Chem. Educ., 74, 262 - 268.Gazzaniga, M. S., Ivry, R. B., & Mangun, G. R. (2008). Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind (3rd ed.). New York: W. W. Norton &Company.

    previous knowledgebiases preferences likesmisconceptionsdislikesInstructorStudentswww.pogil.org

  • New ParadigmKnowledge results only through active participation in its construction.Students teach each other and they teach the instructor by revealing their understanding of the subject.Teachers learn by this processby steadily accumulating a body of knowledge about the practice of teaching.TEACHING IS ENABLING.KNOWLEDGE IS UNDERSTANDING.LEARNING IS ACTIVE CONSTRUCTION OF SUBJECT MATTER.

    Elmore, R. F. (1991). Foreward. In C. R. Christensen, D. A. Garvin, & A. Sweet (Eds.), Education for Judgment (pp. ix- ixi). Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

  • What is POGIL?

  • What is POGIL?

  • Process SkillsInformation ProcessingCritical ThinkingProblem SolvingCommunicationTeamworkManagementAssessment

  • Thinking About Process Skills Meta Activity C: Process Skills

  • What is POGIL?

  • Learning Cycle Activities

    Exploration Concept Invention Application

  • Guided Inquiry ApproachStudents work in groupsStudents construct knowledgeActivities use Learning Cycle paradigmStudents teach/discuss/learn from studentsInstructors facilitate learning

  • Exploring the Structure of a POGIL ActivityMetaActivity D: A POGIL Activity

  • Learning Cycle (Karplus, Piaget)Parallels the scientific methodProvides context for introduction of new termsExplicitly provides opportunities for critical thinkingKarplus, K. & Thier., H.D. (1967). A New Look at Elementary School Science. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co.Piaget, J. (1964). Part I: Cognitive development in children: Piaget development and learning. J. Res. Sci. Teach., 2, 176-186.EIAExplorationConcept Invention(Term Introduction)Applicationinductivedeductive

  • What is POGIL?

  • Analysis of Student OutcomesData on the use of POGIL in a variety of academic settings.

  • What is Success?We define success as the achievement of a grade of C- or higher (ABC)Lack of success includes grades in the D range, F range, and withdrawals (DFW)More detailed grade distributions will be shown, but analysis will be based on this definition of successStatistical significance is determined by chi-squared analysis using these two groupings: ABC and DFW

  • POGIL - General Chemistry at Franklin & Marshall CollegeSections of about 24 studentsLecture F1990 - S1994: n = 420 POGIL F1994 - S1998: n = 485Students randomly placed Fall semesterStudents designate preference Spring semester (but not guaranteed to get their choice)Same instructors before and after

  • POGIL General Chemistryat Franklin & Marshall CollegeLecturePOGIL8 years of data (n = 905)Data from classrooms of Moog, Farrell and Spencer Chi-squared = 40.9 alpha < 0.005Farrell, J.J., Moog, R.S., & Spencer, J.N. (1999). A Guided Inquiry Chemistry Course. J. Chem. Educ., 76, 570-574. www.pogil.org

    Chart7

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    traditionaln=420

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    guided inquiryn=438

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    F&M (Guided Inquiry)

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    Washington College (Traditional)

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    Washington College (Guided Inquiry)

    Chart5

    19.3

    33.1

    25.7

    21.9

    F&M (Traditional)

    Chart6

    24.2

    40.6

    25.6

    9.6

    F&M (Guided Inquiry)

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    33

    Washington College (Traditional)

    Sheet2

    29

    35

    24

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    Washington College (Guided Inquiry)

    Sheet3

    traditionaln=420

    A19.3A19.3

    B33.1B33.1

    C25.7C25.7

    D9D,W,F21.9

    W9.3

    F3.6

    guided inquiryn=438

    A24.2A24.2

    B40.6B40.6

    C25.6C25.6

    D7.1D,W,F9.6

    W2.3

    F0.2

    traditionaln=15

    A20A20

    B20B20

    C27C27

    D20D,W,F33

    W6.7

    F6.7

    guided inquiryn=17

    A29A29

    B35B35

    C24C24

    D12D,W,F12

    W0

    F0

  • POGIL - Organic Chemistry at a Regional Liberal Arts College

    Two sections - one lecture, one POGIL - taught at the same timeStudents randomly placed in sectionsCommon exams - prepared and graded by both instructors

  • LecturePOGIL1998-1999, n = 40

    Randomized enrollment, different instructors, single exam given concurrently, prepared and graded by both instructors Chi-squared = 7.1 alpha < 0.01POGIL Organic Chemistry at a Regional Liberal Arts College

  • POGIL Year Long General Chemistry Small Liberal Arts College1993 ACS General Chemistry Final Examn = ~40 Students

  • POGIL - Evaluating Peer-Led Guided Inquiry (PLGI)**Lewis, S.E., & Lewis, J.E. (2005). Departing from Lectures: An Evaluation of a Peer-Led Guided Inquiry Alternative. J. Chem. Educ., 82, 135-139.Comparison of PLGI Group with Control Group(taught by same instructor)

  • Results of PLGI InterventionComparison of Average Test ScoresAverage Test Score

    Chart1

    0.540.48

    0.640.56

    0.660.565

    0.540.43

    0.580.51

    PLGI

    Control

    Sheet1

    Test 1Test 2Test 3Test 4Final Exam

    PLGI0.540.640.660.540.58

    Control0.480.560.5650.430.51

  • Assessment Quiz for Organic 2Large public universityClasses of about 250Unannounced quiz given on first day of Org. 2Some students took Org I with lecture; two different instructors Some students were in a POGIL section of Org 1

  • Retention of Learning: Organic 2 pre-quiz results (Lecture vs. POGIL Organic 1) Ruder, S.M., & Hunnicutt, S.S. (2008). POGIL in Chemistry Courses at a Large Urban University: A Case Study. In R.S. Moog, & J.N. Spencer (Eds.), Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning: ACS Symposium Series 994 (pp. 133- 147). Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.

    Chart1

    6024

    1515

    1811

    622

    27

    022

    Lecture

    POGIL

    Score

    % of Students in Section

    Sheet1

    LecturePOGIL

    0-496024

    50-591515

    60-691811

    70-79622

    80-8927

    90-100022

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • POGIL - Organic II at a Tier 1 Midwest Liberal Arts College Comparison is of grades in a single section of Organic IISome students took Organic I with Guided InquirySome students took Organic I with LectureNot all students from Organic I enrolled in this section of Organic II

  • Is Guided Inquiry Organic I Preparation for Organic II Lecture?% of StudentsGrade in Organic II Winter Quarter

    Chart1

    1211A / A-

    3319B+ / B

    2011B- / C+

    2019C / C-

    611D / F / Drop Late

    626Did not go on to Organic II

    Students from Section GI - Fall Quarter

    Students from Section L - Fall Quarter

    Column2

    Sheet1

    Students from Section GI - Fall QuarterStudents from Section L - Fall QuarterColumn2

    A / A-1211

    B+ / B3319

    B- / C+2011

    C / C-2019

    D / F / Drop Late611

    Did not go on to Organic II626

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

  • Questions?

    Take one minute to write down any questions that you have, then think about which question is most important to you. As a group, take three minutes to discuss your questions and come up with a list of up to three questions you would like to ask, in rank order of importance.

  • Take a BreakCheck-In

  • Implementation of Peer-Led Guided InquiryStudents work in groups of 10 led by an undergraduate peer leader, who:Has successfully completed general chemistryReceives training on how to lead groups in a guided inquiry styleUndergoes concept review via faculty-led guided inquiry (model)Uses specific ChemActivities as material

  • POGIL - Organic I at a Large Public University

    Two sections - one lecture, one POGIL - taught at the same timeStudents randomly placed in sectionsMidterm exams (not part of study) created and graded independentlyFinal exam (studied) created solely by lecture instructor

  • POGIL - Organic I at a Large Public UniversityWithdrawals and Common Final Exam Scores - Fall 2000LECTURE n = 109F5%D1%A12%Withdraw47%C16%B19%POGIL n = 75A9%B32%C31%D15%Withdraw12%F

    1%Chi squared = 19.1 Alpha

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