Technology Supports All Learning Theory Approaches Behaviorist Behaviorist Cognitivist Cognitivist Constructivist Constructivist.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Technology Supports All Learning Theory Approaches Behaviorist Behaviorist Cognitivist Cognitivist Constructivist Constructivist </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> All Learning Theories May Be Used The learning environment or situation may be critical in the choice of theory used. The learning environment or situation may be critical in the choice of theory used. Though all may be used, the constructivist approach is advocated by most educators today. Though all may be used, the constructivist approach is advocated by most educators today. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Driscoll, M.(1994). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. Allyn and Bacon: Massachusetts, USA. "It is probably no accident that constructivisim is gaining popularity and momentum at the same time interactive, user friendly computer technologies are becoming widely available. The computer offers effective means for implementing constructivist strategies that would be difficult to accomplish in other media" (Driscoll,1994, p376). "It is probably no accident that constructivisim is gaining popularity and momentum at the same time interactive, user friendly computer technologies are becoming widely available. The computer offers effective means for implementing constructivist strategies that would be difficult to accomplish in other media" (Driscoll,1994, p376). </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Constructivism Vs. Instructivism The contention between student-centered and teacher-centered approaches has a long history. The contention between student-centered and teacher-centered approaches has a long history. Constructivism is often related to the philosophies of Rousseau and Dewey, and inspired by Piaget and Vygotsky. Constructivism is often related to the philosophies of Rousseau and Dewey, and inspired by Piaget and Vygotsky. Instructivism is related to faculty psychology, behaviorism, and to the research-based programs of the last few decades known as process-product pedagogy. such as the work of Bereiter and Rosenshine. Instructivism is related to faculty psychology, behaviorism, and to the research-based programs of the last few decades known as process-product pedagogy. such as the work of Bereiter and Rosenshine. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> The Impact of the Debate It is important to understand how underlying philosophies of education influence not only educational practice but also research. It is important to understand how underlying philosophies of education influence not only educational practice but also research. The extent to which teachers see themselves as "instructivist" versus "constructivist" implicitly determines the extent to which classroom activities are based on teacher or student preferences, and may also influence the focus of research design. (reference) The extent to which teachers see themselves as "instructivist" versus "constructivist" implicitly determines the extent to which classroom activities are based on teacher or student preferences, and may also influence the focus of research design. (reference) </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Constructivism and Technology A constructivist approach allows both learners and facilitators to take advantage of the World Wide Web, because the theory focuses on making connections and making meaning in the learning process. A constructivist approach allows both learners and facilitators to take advantage of the World Wide Web, because the theory focuses on making connections and making meaning in the learning process. Web-based courses that are designed with a constructivist approach encourage the learners to navigate, create, and construct their unique knowledge base. Web-based courses that are designed with a constructivist approach encourage the learners to navigate, create, and construct their unique knowledge base. Constructivist Learning Theory to Web-Based Course Design: An Instructional Design Approach - Simone Conceio-Runlee and Barbara J.Daley Constructivist Learning Theory to Web-Based Course Design: An Instructional Design Approach - Simone Conceio-Runlee and Barbara J.Daley Constructivist Learning Theory to Web-Based Course Design: An Instructional Design Approach Constructivist Learning Theory to Web-Based Course Design: An Instructional Design Approach </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Constructivism and Ed Tech The methods of constructivism emphasize students' ability to solve real-life, practical problems. Students typically work in cooperative groups rather than individually; they tend to focus on projects that require solutions to problems rather than on instructional sequences that require learning of certain content skills. The methods of constructivism emphasize students' ability to solve real-life, practical problems. Students typically work in cooperative groups rather than individually; they tend to focus on projects that require solutions to problems rather than on instructional sequences that require learning of certain content skills. The job of the teacher in constructivist models is to arrange for required resources and act as a guide to students while they set their own goals and 'teach themselves (Roblyer, Edwards, and Havriluk). The job of the teacher in constructivist models is to arrange for required resources and act as a guide to students while they set their own goals and 'teach themselves (Roblyer, Edwards, and Havriluk). </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> HowEducationalTechnologyImpactsLearning </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> A First Question and Answer One of the first questions that arises in the discussion of educational technology is whether technology increases student achievement. One of the first questions that arises in the discussion of educational technology is whether technology increases student achievement. The answer to this question is, "It depends. The answer to this question is, "It depends. According to Ted Hasselbring, a co-director of Vanderbuilt University's Learning and Technology Center in Nashville, "It's kind of like asking, 'Are pencils effective?' According to Ted Hasselbring, a co-director of Vanderbuilt University's Learning and Technology Center in Nashville, "It's kind of like asking, 'Are pencils effective?' It depends on what you are going to do with them" It depends on what you are going to do with them" </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Ineffectual Technology The blame was sometimes assigned to logistical problems, but, more often, it was laid at the feet of teachers. The blame was sometimes assigned to logistical problems, but, more often, it was laid at the feet of teachers. Earlier reformers underestimated the importance of the teacher's role in the classroom and tried to impose change from the top down. Earlier reformers underestimated the importance of the teacher's role in the classroom and tried to impose change from the top down. Little formal effort was made to support teachers who tried to implement new technologies. Little formal effort was made to support teachers who tried to implement new technologies. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Assessing Technology Effectiveness The problem in trying to assess the effectiveness of computer technology is that educators are increasingly using computers to assist in transforming their classrooms into constructivist learning environments. The problem in trying to assess the effectiveness of computer technology is that educators are increasingly using computers to assist in transforming their classrooms into constructivist learning environments. The traditional types of standardized testing are not effective in measuring the kinds of benefits gained in technology-rich classrooms, and where benefits can be demonstrated, it is hard to tell how much of the success is due to the technology, and how much is due to the changed learning environment. The traditional types of standardized testing are not effective in measuring the kinds of benefits gained in technology-rich classrooms, and where benefits can be demonstrated, it is hard to tell how much of the success is due to the technology, and how much is due to the changed learning environment. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> 2000 Research Report on the Effectiveness of Technology in Schools: Executive Summary2000 Research Report on the Effectiveness of Technology in Schools: Executive Summary by the Software &amp; Information Industry Assoc. 2000 Research Report on the Effectiveness of Technology in Schools: Executive Summary Conclusions reveal that the effects of technology depend on school subject area, student population, the teacher's role, how students are grouped, software design, and access to technology. Conclusions reveal that the effects of technology depend on school subject area, student population, the teacher's role, how students are grouped, software design, and access to technology. Of vital importance is teacher training: students of teachers with more than ten hours of technology training perform better than students of teachers without such training. Of vital importance is teacher training: students of teachers with more than ten hours of technology training perform better than students of teachers without such training. In terms of how technology affects student achievement and motivation, the report indicates positive effects for all subject areas, in all levels of schooling. ( Ref www.edc.org/LNT/news/Issue8/brief2.htm) In terms of how technology affects student achievement and motivation, the report indicates positive effects for all subject areas, in all levels of schooling. ( Ref www.edc.org/LNT/news/Issue8/brief2.htm) </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Effectiveness of Technology Students feel successful and confident using technology, which increases their motivation to learn. Students feel successful and confident using technology, which increases their motivation to learn. These positive effects are seen within special needs populations as well. These positive effects are seen within special needs populations as well. The report confirms that how technology is used, rather than how often, marks the biggest difference in terms of its effectiveness. The report confirms that how technology is used, rather than how often, marks the biggest difference in terms of its effectiveness. Tips for using technology well include collaboration between students, careful planning by teachers, and frequent interaction between students and teachers. Tips for using technology well include collaboration between students, careful planning by teachers, and frequent interaction between students and teachers. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Effectiveness of Technology Studies focusing on science education suggest the benefits of simulations, microcomputer based laboratories, video to anchor instruction to real-world problems, and software that targets students misconceptions. Studies focusing on science education suggest the benefits of simulations, microcomputer based laboratories, video to anchor instruction to real-world problems, and software that targets students misconceptions. A learning advantage has been found when students have developed multimedia presentations on social studies topics. A learning advantage has been found when students have developed multimedia presentations on social studies topics. Kindergartners who have used technology have benefited in areas such as improved conceptual knowledge, reading vocabulary, reading comprehension, and creativity. Kindergartners who have used technology have benefited in areas such as improved conceptual knowledge, reading vocabulary, reading comprehension, and creativity. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Effectiveness of Technology Educational technology has significant positive effects on achievement for special needs populations: speech recognition is an especially valuable compensatory tool for the learning disabled. Educational technology has significant positive effects on achievement for special needs populations: speech recognition is an especially valuable compensatory tool for the learning disabled. Interactive video is especially effective when the skills and concepts to be learned have a visual component and when the software incorporates a research-based instructional design. Interactive video is especially effective when the skills and concepts to be learned have a visual component and when the software incorporates a research-based instructional design. Use of online telecommunication for collaboration across classrooms in different geographic locations can improve academic skills. Use of online telecommunication for collaboration across classrooms in different geographic locations can improve academic skills. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Positive Impacts of Technology on Student Motivation and Self-Concept Educational technology has been found to have positive effects on student attitudes toward learning and on student self-concept. Educational technology has been found to have positive effects on student attitudes toward learning and on student self-concept. Students felt more successful in school, were more motivated to learn and had increased self-confidence and self-esteem when using computer-based instruction. Students felt more successful in school, were more motivated to learn and had increased self-confidence and self-esteem when using computer-based instruction. The evidence of these effects is the strongest for: The evidence of these effects is the strongest for: Language arts and writing instruction Language arts and writing instruction Mathematics instruction Mathematics instruction Science instruction Science instruction Telecommunication technology, including the Internet Video technology Telecommunication technology, including the Internet Video technology Educational technology has significant positive effects on student attitudes for special need populations. Educational technology has significant positive effects on student attitudes for special need populations. </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Effects of the Teachers Role and Instructional Decisions The teacher's role is of primary importance in creating an effective, technology-based learning environmentan environment that is characterized by careful planning and frequent interaction among students and the teacher. The teacher's role is of primary importance in creating an effective, technology-based learning environmentan environment that is characterized by careful planning and frequent interaction among students and the teacher. Teacher professional development and decisions about how computers are to be used in instruction may matter more than how often technology is used. Teacher professional development and decisions about how computers are to be used in instruction may matter more than how often technology is used. Students trained in collaborative learning on computer in small groups had higher student achievement, higher self-esteem and better attitudes towar...</li></ul>

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