LEARNING THEORIESBehaviourist theory Constructivist theorySituated learning
LEARNING - DEFINITIONChange in behavior as a result of experience, education, training & practiceLearning is any relatively permanent change in behavior as result of previous experience/ acquired through experienceLearning has taken place if an individual behaves, reacts, response, as a result of experience in a manner different from the way he formally behave
PRINCIPLES OF LEARNINGREINFORCEMENT : The term reinforcement means to strengthen, and is used in psychology to refer to anything stimulus which strengthens, encouraging the designated behavior, or increases the probability of a specific response. For example, if you want your dog to sit on command, you may give him a treat every time he sits for you. The dog will eventually come to understand that sitting when told to will result in a treat. This treat is reinforcing because he likes it and will result in him sitting when instructed to do soTYPES OF REINFORCEMENT:Positive ReinforcementNegative ReinforcementPunishment ReinforcementExtinction Reinforcement 1) Positive Reinforcement: Giving a positive response when an individual shows positive and required behavior. Think of it as adding something in order to increase a response. The most common types of positive reinforcement or praise and rewards. For example: Immediately praising an employee for coming early for job. This will increase probability of outstanding behavior occurring again. Reward is a positive reinforcement.
PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING
2) Negative Reinforcement Negative reinforcement as taking something negative away in order to increase a response. It is a more effective tool for motivating employee behavior. For Example: Driving in heavy traffic is a negative condition for most of us. You leave home earlier than usual one morning, and don't run into heavy traffic. You leave home earlier again the next morning and again you avoid heavy traffic. Your behavior of leaving home earlier is strengthened by the consequence of the avoidance of heavy traffic.3) Punishment Reinforcement Punishment refers to adding something aversive in order to decrease a behavior. For example: Disciplining (e.g. spanking) Suspending an employee for breaking the organizational rules. Punishment involves either presenting or taking away a stimulus in order to weaken a behavior. 4) Extinction Reinforcement When you remove something in order to decrease a behavior, this is called extinction. You are taking something away so that a response is decreased. For Example: If an employee no longer receives praise and admiration for his good work, he may feel that his behavior is generating no fruitful consequence. Extinction may unintentionally lower desirable behavior.
TYPE OF LEARNERS
TYPE OF LEARNERS
Here are brief descriptions of the four Kolb learning styles: 1)Diverging (feeling and watching - CE/RO) - These people are able to look at things from different perspectives. They are sensitive. They prefer to watch rather than do, tending to gather information and use imagination to solve problems. They are best at viewing concrete situations several different viewpoints. Kolb called this style 'Diverging' because these people perform better in situations that require ideas-generation, for example, brainstorming. People with a Diverging learning style have broad cultural interests and like to gather information. They are interested in people, tend to be imaginative and emotional, and tend to be strong in the arts. People with the Diverging style prefer to work in groups, to listen with an open mind and to receive personal feedback. 2) Assimilating (watching and thinking - AC/RO) - The Assimilating learning preference is for a concise, logical approach. Ideas and concepts are more important than people. They excel at understanding wide-ranging information and organizing it a clear logical format. People with an Assimilating learning style are less focused on people and more interested in ideas and abstract concepts. People with this style are more attracted to logically sound theories than approaches based on practical value. These learning style people is important for effectiveness in information and science careers. In formal learning situations, people with this style prefer readings, lectures, exploring analytical models, and having time to think things through.
TYPE OF LEARNERS 3)Converging (doing and thinking - AC/AE) - People with a Converging learning style can solve problems and will use their learning to find solutions to practical issues. They prefer technical tasks, and are less concerned with people and interpersonal aspects. They can solve problems and make decisions by finding solutions to questions and problems.. A Converging learning style enables specialist and technology abilities. People with a Converging style like to experiment with new ideas, to simulate, and to work with practical applications. 4) Accommodating (doing and feeling - CE/AE) - The Accommodating learning style is 'hands-on', and relies on intuition rather than logic. These people use other people's analysis, and prefer to take a practical, experiential approach. They are attracted to new challenges and experiences, and to carrying out plans. They commonly act on 'gut' instinct rather than logical analysis. People with an Accommodating learning style will tend to rely on others for information than carry out their own analysis. This learning style is prevalent and useful in roles requiring action and initiative. People with an Accommodating learning style prefer to work in teams to complete tasks. They set targets and actively work in the field trying different ways to achieve an objective.
Various steps in learning process are as follows1)Stimuli: Stimuli are any objects and language which draw the attention of people. Employees get stimuli from the actions of their supervisors.2)Attention: The degree of attention depends upon the nature of the stimuli. All stimuli are not paid attention to. Technical and interested stimuli are highly attended. Career oriented stimuli are generally accepted by stimuli.3)Recognition: Attention paid stimuli are recognized as acceptable factors of improvement and new life styles. Employees paying attention to stimuli are recognizing the stimuli for learning process 4)Translation: Recognized stimuli are evaluated at the mental level to eliminate the irrelevant points for accepting a part of the stimulus for changing behaviour5)Reinforcement: Reinforced perception is learning. The perceptual process includes stimuli, Attention, recognition, translation and behaviour. Perception leads to learning, but perception itself is not learning unless it is reinforced
6)Behaviour: Learning changes behaviour through reinforcement of perceived knowledge. It makes permanent changes behaviour. A temporary change in behaviour is not learning. Positive behaviour gives rewards to employees7)Rewards: Employees expect rewards for learning. If the translated behaviour provides a reward. It is accepted, otherwise it is not accepted.8)Habits: A permanent change in behaviour becomes a habit which helps continuous improvement in behaviour and performance. Employees develop the habit of self appraisal and development.9)Motives Motives depends on the level of satisfaction. Employees getting more satisfaction through learning, develop high motives. Less satisfied learners have low motives. Learning is complete only when motives are fully realized and translated in to efforts10)Efforts: Habits help achieve good efforts and performance. This is a continuous process. Efforts are the automatic outcome of good habits which are acquired through the learning process.
LEARNING THEORIES The learning theories are: Behaviourist theory Constructivist theory Situated Learning Cognitive Learning Theory Social Learning Theory
LEARNING THEORIESCONSTRUCTIVIST THEROYBEHAVIORIST THEORYSITUATED LEARNING THEORYCOGNITIVE LEARNING THEORYSOCIAL LEARNING THEORYLEARNING THEORIES
1.Behaviourist theoryIts main influences were Ivan Pavlov, who investigated classical conditioningJohn B. Watson (1878-1958) who rejected introspective methods and sought to restrict psychology to experimental laboratory methods. B.F. Skinner, sought to give ethical grounding to behaviorism, relating it to pragmatism.
Behaviourist theoryBehaviourist Theory maintains a focus on the change in observable behaviours as the manifestations of learning. Thus the theory states that is learning is the acquisition of new behaviour through conditioning
Behaviourist theoryThe means of conditioning is achieved in two ways namely, classical and operant.Operant conditioning also called instrumental conditioning refers to the process that ourbehavior produces certain consequences are. If our actions have pleasant effects, then we will be more likely to repeat them in the future. If, however, our actions have unpleasant effects, we are less likely to repeat them in the futureOperant conditioning is where there is reinforcement of a behaviour by a reward or punishment. Reinforcement is any means of increasing the likelihood that an event will be repeated.
Behaviourist theoryClassical conditioning is where the behaviour becomes a reflex response to stimulus. For example Dogs who were fed continuously by persons in lab coats reacted as if food was on its way whenever they saw a lab coat
Characteristics Behaviourist believes:Learning is manifested by a change in behaviourEnvironment shapes behaviour ( nurture)Contiguity and