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Acknowledgment I am are greatly thankful for the cooperation and help from the Community Science Center (CSC) authorities and the Chemistry lab staff for the successful completion of this investigatory project in the CSC Chemistry lab. Without their help and proper guidance my project might not have completed. Provided by http://www.loookinto.blogspot.com/

Chemistry investigatory project work

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Page 1: Chemistry investigatory project work

Acknowledgment

I am are greatly thankful for the cooperation and

help from the Community Science Center (CSC)

authorities and the Chemistry lab staff for the successful completion of this investigatory project in the CSC

Chemistry lab. Without their help and proper guidance my project might not have completed.

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Page 2: Chemistry investigatory project work

Index

1. Introduction

2. Theory

3. Objectives of project

4. Experiment No.1

5. Experiment No.2

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Page 3: Chemistry investigatory project work

Theory

Evaporation is the process whereby atoms or molecules in a liquid state

(or solid state if the substance sublimes) gain sufficient energy to

enter the gaseous state.

The thermal motion of a molecule must be sufficient to overcome the

surface tension of the liquid in order for it to evaporate, that is, its kinetic

energy must exceed the work function of cohesion at the surface.

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Page 4: Chemistry investigatory project work

Evaporation therefore proceeds more quickly at higher temperature and in

liquids with lower surface tension. Since only a small proportion of the

molecules are located near the surface and are moving in the proper

direction to escape at any given instant, the rate of evaporation is limited. Also, as the faster-moving molecules escape, the remaining

molecules have lower average kinetic energy, and the temperature of the

liquid thus decreases.

If the evaporation takes place in a closed vessel, the escaping molecules

accumulate as a vapor above the liquid. Many of the molecules return

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Page 5: Chemistry investigatory project work

to the liquid, with returning molecules becoming more frequent as the

density and pressure of the vapor increases. When the process of

escape and return reaches equilibrium, the vapor is said to be

"saturated," and no further change in either vapor pressure and density or

liquid temperature will occur.

Gas has less order than liquid or solid matter, and thus the entropy of the system is increased, which always requires energy input. This means

that the entropy change for evaporation (ΔH) is always positive.

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Page 6: Chemistry investigatory project work

Forced evaporation is a process used in the separation of mixtures, in

which a mixture is heated to drive off the more volatile component (e.g.

water), leaving behind the dry, less volatile, component.

It is a misconception that at 1 ATM, water vapor only exists at 100°C. Water molecules are in a constant state of evaporation and condensation flux near the surface of liquid water. If a surface molecule receives enough energy, it will leave the liquid and turn into vapor pending an allowable vapor pressure. Under a pressure of 1 ATM, water will boil at 100°C.

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Page 7: Chemistry investigatory project work

Factors influencing rate of evaporation:-

1.Concentration of the substance evaporating in the air. If the air already has a high concentration of the substance evaporating, then the given substance will evaporate more slowly.

2.Concentration of other substances in the air. If the air is already saturated with other substances, it can have a lower capacity for the substance evaporating.

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Page 8: Chemistry investigatory project work

3.Temperature of the substance . If the substance is hotter, then evaporation will be faster.

4.Flow rate of air. This is in part related to the concentration points above. If fresh air is moving over the substance all the time, then the concentration of the substance in the air is less likely to go up with time, thus encouraging faster evaporation. In addition, molecules in motion have more energy than those at rest, and so the stronger the flow of air, the greater the evaporating power of the air molecules.

5.Inter-molecular forces . The stronger the forces keeping the

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Page 9: Chemistry investigatory project work

molecules together in the liquid or solid state the more energy that must be input in order to evaporate them.

6.Surface area and temperature: -

Because molecules or atoms evaporate from a liquid’S surface, a larger surface area allows more molecules or atoms to leave the liquid, and evaporation occurs more quickly. For example, the same amount of water will evaporate faster if spilled on a table than if it is left in a cup.

Higher temperatures also increase Provided by http://www.loookinto.blogspot.com/

Page 10: Chemistry investigatory project work

the rate of evaporation. At higher temperatures, molecules or atoms have a higher average speed, and more particles are able to break free of the liquid’S surface. For example, a wet street will dry faster in the hot sun than in the shade.

Intermolecular forces: -

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Page 11: Chemistry investigatory project work

Most liquids are made up of molecules, and the levels of mutual attraction among different molecules help explain why some liquids evaporate faster than others. Attractions between molecules arise because molecules typically have regions that carry a slight negative charge, and other regions that carry a slight positive charge. These regions of electric charge are created because some atoms in the molecule are often more electronegative (electron-attracting) than others. The oxygen atom in a water (H2O) molecule is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms, for example, enabling the oxygen atom Provided by http://www.loookinto.blogspot.com/

Page 12: Chemistry investigatory project work

to pull electrons away from both hydrogen atoms. As a result, the oxygen atom in the water molecule carries a partial negative charge, while the hydrogen atoms carry a partial positive charge. Water molecules share a mutual attraction—positively charged hydrogen atoms in one water molecule attract negatively charged oxygen atoms in nearby water molecules.

Intermolecular attractions affect the rate of evaporation of a liquid because strong intermolecular attractions hold the molecules in a liquid together more tightly. As a result, liquids with strong

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Page 13: Chemistry investigatory project work

intermolecular attractions evaporate more slowly than liquids with weak intermolecular attractions. For example, because water molecules have stronger mutual attractions than gasoline molecules (the electric charges are more evenly distributed in gasoline molecules), gasoline evaporates more quickly than water.

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Page 14: Chemistry investigatory project work

Objective of project

In this project,we shall investigate various factors that have already been discussed such as nature of

liquid ,surface of liquid and temperature and find their correlation

with the rate of evaporation of different liquids.

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Page 15: Chemistry investigatory project work

Experiment no.1Aim:To compare the rate of evaporation of water, acetone and diethyl ether.

Materials required: China dish, Pipette, Beaker, Weighing balance Measuring flask, Acetone, Distilled water, Diethyl ether, Watch

PROCEDURE:1. Take three china dishes.

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Page 16: Chemistry investigatory project work

2. Pipette out 10 ml of each sample.

3. Dish A-Acetone

Dish B-Water

Dish C-Diethyl ether

4. Record the weights before beginning the experiment.

5. Leave the three dishes undisturbed for ½ an hr and wait patiently.

6. Record the weights of the samples after the given time.

7. Compare the prior and present observations.

OBSERVATION:Water(gm)

Acetone(gm)

DiethylEther(gm)

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Page 17: Chemistry investigatory project work

Weight of dish 50 50 50

Weight of (dish + substance) before evaporation

60 57.85 57

Weight of (dish + substance) after evaporation

59.8 55.55 54.33

Weight of substance evaporated

0.2 2.30 2.67

Inference and conclusion: -

The rate of evaporation of the given three liquids is in order :-Provided by http://www.loookinto.blogspot.com/

Page 18: Chemistry investigatory project work

Diethyl Ether>Acetone>Water

Reason: -

Water has extensive hydrogen bonding in between oxygen atom of one molecule and hydrogen atom of another molecule. But this is absent in the case of acetone.

Experiment no.2

Aim:-To study the effect of surface area on the rate of evaporation of

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Page 19: Chemistry investigatory project work

Diethyl ether.

RequirementsThree Petridishes of diameter 2.5 cm,5 cm, and 10 cm with covers ,10 ml pipette and stopwatch.

Procedure1. Clean and dry the petridishes and mark them as A,B,C.

2. Pipette out 10 ml of Diethyl ether in each of the petridishes a,band C cover them immediately.

3. Uncover all the three petridishes simultaneously

and start the stopwatch.

4. Note the time when diethyl ether evaporates completely from each

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Page 20: Chemistry investigatory project work

petridish.

Observation TablePetridish Mark

Diameter of petridish

Time taken for complete evaporation

A 2.5 cm 11min 45sec

B 5.0 cm 8min 45secC 7.5 cm 6min 30sec

ResultIt will be observed that maximum evaporation occurs in petridish with largest diameter followed by smaller

and the smallest petridish. It is therefore , concluded that rate of Provided by http://www.loookinto.blogspot.com/

Page 21: Chemistry investigatory project work

evaporation increases with increase in surface area.

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