Chemistry investigatory Proj

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  • 8/10/2019 Chemistry investigatory Proj


    Chemistry Project

  • 8/10/2019 Chemistry investigatory Proj


    Name : N. Ahmed Ishhaq

    Teachers Name : MR.K. Subramaniam

    Schoo : Push!aata "idya Mandir

    Cass : #II $ A

    Project : %iode&radabe Pastics

  • 8/10/2019 Chemistry investigatory Proj



    This is to certi(y that N. Ahmed Ishhaq o(

    cass #II o( Push!aata "idya Mandir) Tirune*ei

    has com!eted his !roject 'e under my

    &uidance. She has ta+en !ro!er care and sho,n

    utmost sincerity in the com!etion o( this !roject.

    I certi(y that this !roject is u!to my

    e-!ectation and is as !er the &uideines issued

    by C%S.

    K. Subramaniam

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    I ,oud i+e to e-!ress my s!ecia than+s to

    my teacher Mr. +. Subramaniam as ,e as our

    !rinci!a) Mrs. Push!a*eni Ayya!an ,ho has

    &i*en me a &oden o!!ortunity to do this !roject

    on the to!ic %iode&radabe !astics ,hich he!ed

    me in doin& a ot o( researches and &ain+no,ed&e on di/erent areas (or ,hich I am *ery

    than+(u to them.

    Secondy) I ,oud aso i+e to than+ my

    !arents and (riends ,ho he!ed me (or 'nai0in&

    this !roject ,ithin the imited time (rame.

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    Co*er !a&e





    %iode&radabe Pastics


    1isad*anta&es -am!es


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    Biodegradable plastics have an expanding range

    of potential applications, and driven by the growing

    use of plastics in packaging and the perception

    that biodegradable plastics are environmentally

    friendly their use is predicted to increase.

    However, issues are also emerging regarding the

    use of biodegradable plastics and their potentialimpacts on the environment and effects on

    established recycling systems and technologies.

    Harmful effects of plastics on environment:

    . !he light weight and high consumption of plastic

    bags and their ability to persist for long periods of

    time in the environment without decomposingmade them one of the main factors of pollution in

    the open spaces, public s"uares, main roads

    inside and outside cities, sea beaches and water.

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    #. !he easy evaporation and wide use of plastic

    bags also distort the general appearance of the

    places where they are.

    $. %hen plastic bags stick to trees and plants they

    obstruct the natural light from reaching parts of the

    plant causing impairment to the process of


    &. 'lastic bags cause diseases and even death tothe cattle that come across and eat them during


    (. Burying of plastic bags in soil makes an

    insulating layer that keeps rainwater in the upper

    part of the soil and prevents water and other

    fertili)ers from reaching its lower part.

    *. 'lastic bags create a fertile environment for the

    growth of infectious bacteria.

    +. ccumulation of plastic bags in water blocks the

    irrigation canals and drainage networks.

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    %iode&radabe Pastics

    Biodegradable plastic is plastic that decomposesnaturally in the environment. !his is achievedwhen microorganisms in the environmentmetaboli)e and break down the structure ofbiodegradable plastic. !he end result is one whichis less harmful to the environment than traditionalplastics. Biodegradable plastics can be composed

    of bio-plastics, which are plastics made fromrenewable raw materials. !here are normally twoforms of biodegradable plastic, inection molded

    and solid. !he solid formsnormally are used foritems such as food containers, leaf collectionbags, and water bottles

    Making Biodegradable Plastic

    Biodegradable plastics are made from allnatural plant materials. !hese can include:corn oil, orange peels, starch, and plants.!raditional plastic is made with chemical fillers

    thatcan be harmful to the environment whenreleased when the plastic is melted down.%ith biodegradable plastic, you get asubstance made from natural sources thatdoes contain these chemical fillers/ they donot pose the same risk to the environment.

    !he process of making biodegradable plastics

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    begins with the melting down of all thematerials. !hat mixture is then poured intomolds of various shapes such as plastic waterbottles and utensils.

    Regular Plastic VS Biodegradable Plastic

    fter formation, regular plastics hold carbon.%hen they are disposed of and begin todecompose or when they are melted, thatcarbon is then released into the atmosphere.

    Biodegradable plastics do not release carbon,

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    because no carbon is involved in themanufacturing process. 0ethane and otherforms of pollutants could also be releasedfrom traditional plastic when they are recycledand burned. !his is not the case withbiodegradable plastics, which do not containthose polluting materials. 1ne of the manypositive aspects of biodegradable plastics is

    that they are able to be broken down bynaturally occurring bacteria, which again willbe beneficial to the environment. side from aslightly higher cost to produce, biodegradableplastics hold many advantages over standardplastics, with a lesser impact on the

    environment being one of its greatestadvantages.

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    . Biodegradable plastics take less time tobreak down

    Biodegradable packaging and biodegradable bags

    take much less time to break down after being

    discarded, if they havent been recycled, of course.

    %hat this means is that it gets absorbed in the

    earth, and there will no longer be tons of plastic

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    dominating our landfills.

    #. Biodegradable plastics are renewable

    Biodegradable plastics are made from biomass,

    which is a completely renewable resource. 2t is an

    organic compound, which breaks down. !here is

    plenty of it around the globe. Biomass includes

    trees, plants, grass, and all organic materials that

    decompose. !his may even include animal fats,meats, and other tissues.

    $. Biodegradable plastics are good for the


    Biodegradable plastics are much better for the

    environment, because there is no harm done to

    the earth when recovering fossil fuels. lso, in this

    process there are very few greenhouse gas and

    harmful carbon emissions. 3egular plastics need

    oil for their manufacturing, which pollutes the


    &. Biodegradable plastics require less energy

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    to produce

    Biodegradable plastics need less than half the

    energy to produce than their non-biodegradable

    counterparts. !his means that it is possible to

    make twice the amount of biodegradable

    packaging and biodegradable bags using the

    same amount of energy.

    (. Biodegradable plastics are easier to recycleBiodegradable plastics are created from materials

    that are fully biodegradable. !his means that they

    can break down much faster and recycling them

    takes less energy. Biodegradable plastics can be

    reused more efficiently, which gives them a clear


    *. Biodegradable plastics are not toxic

    !raditional plastics are full of harmful by-products

    and chemicals, which are released during their

    breakdown process. Biodegradable plastics are

    completely safe and do not have any chemicals ortoxins. !his plastic harmlessly breaks down and

    gets absorbed into the earth. 4uch advantages of

    bioplastics are of extreme importance, as the toxic

    plastic load on the earth is growing and at this rate

    will cause a whole range of problems for future


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    +. Biodegradable plastics reduce dependence

    on foreign oil

    !he use of biodegradable plastics will decrease

    the countrys dependence on other countries for

    fossil fuels. !he maority of the oil that is needed to

    make regular plastic comes from the 0iddle 5ast,

    which has not always been friendly toward the

    6.4. Biodegradable plastics are created fromdomestic biomass materials, so it reduces the

    dependence on foreign oil, providing a domestic

    solution instead.

    s you can see, these advantages of

    biodegradable plastics are significant and of great

    importance for the future of the planet. 'lastics are

    new to society - ust a generation ago and plastic

    consumption was a tenth of what it is now. 7or me,

    researching into the advantages of bioplastics has

    been an enoyable process, as 2 am committed to

    reducing the environmental pollution as much as 2

    can. !he benefits of biodegradable products are so

    clear that the next stage is for the public to

    become more aware of the issue. 'erhaps in a

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    generation ahead the oil-based plastic will have

    had its day8


    9 !he first and most obvious argument against

    biodegradable trash bags is that they are simply

    more expensive in comparison to conventional

    plastic bags. !his is because they re"uireinnovative methods to create them, which brings

    the cost up.

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    #9 nother consideration against biodegradable

    bags is that you have to have an actual composterto make them biodegrade. !his makes the whole

    process look "uestionable: if they are

    biodegradable, surely, they should be able to

    biodegrade more naturally.

    $9 !his brings us to the next big con of these

    biodegradable rubbish bags is that you will not be

    able to recycle them along with regular plastics.

    !hese bags re"uire special facilities for

    composting them. 4o, even though they are

    considered biodegradable, if they dont end up theright place, they are as good as regular plastics.

    0ost of them end up in landfills anyway, where its

    virtually impossible for them to biodegrade.

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    &9 Biodegradable bags actually re"uire more

    energy, more water, and more carbon dioxideemissions to produce than their conventional

    polyethylene counterparts. !his makes one

    wonder whether the whole thing is actually worth

    their purchase, since we are still harming the

    environment in the process.

    (9 4ome companies that market biodegradable

    bags will actually deceive the consumer by

    assuring that the bags will, in fact, biodegrade no

    matter what.

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    evelopment of biodegradable containers

    %hile aromatic polyestersare almost

    totally resistant to microbial attack,most aliphatic polyestersare biodegradabledue to their potentiallyhydrolysable esterbonds:
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    'roduced: 'olyhydroxyalkanoates9/

    4ynthetic: 'olybutylenesuccinate9..


    'olyvinyl alcohol

    0ost of the starchderivatives

    ?ellulose esterslike cellulose

    acetateand nitrocelluloseand theirderivatives

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    Science Project Details:

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    ecomposition of bio-degradable plastic spoons

    ifficulty: dvanced @

    !ime re"uired: =ery long

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    Bio-degradable spoons lose some of their weightas "uickly as within $C days after being kept in


    BackgroundBio-degradable plastic

    Bio-degradable plastic materials are able to

    degrade and decompose over time under natural

    environmental conditions. !he degradation ofthese bio-degradable plastics is achieved by

    allowing micro-organisms to metaboli)e on their

    surface and decompose the plastic into smaller

    parts and less harmful materials.

    !he decomposing of bio-degradable plastic can bedone by natural composting or in a landfill.

    0oisture and oxygen are normally re"uired for the

    decomposition process to take place and these

    conditions are readily available in most

    composting facilities.

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    4ome of the concerns over the use of bio-

    degradable plastics are the release of carbon

    dioxide during the decomposition process. !he

    release of carbon dioxide into the environment

    contributes to the release of greenhouse gases,

    which cause global warming. However most bio-

    degradable plastics are made from natural plant

    material nd these plants have consumed and

    reduce carbon dioxide gas in our atmosphere.

    Scientific erms

    Biodegradable, decomposition, microorganisms,metaboli)e, composting, greenhouse gas


    !he materials re"uired for this science fair proect:

    - C pieces corn starch based bio-degradablespoons

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    - C pieces wheat-based bio-degradable spoons

    - C pieces plastic spoons

    - digital weighing scale

    - 4oil, or a garden plot

    - %ater

    - black marker pen


    . 7or this science fair proect, the independentvariable is the type of spoon used ?orn starchbased, wheat based and plastic. !he dependent

    variable is the amount of decomposition observed

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    after $C days. !his is determined by using thedigital weighing scale to measure the weight of thespoons before and after the $C days. !he


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    calculated as described in procedure $ and theresults are recorded in the table below.


    !he results showed that the weight of the cornstarch based spoon and wheat based spoon hadreduced after $C days in the soil but the weight of

    the plastic spoon remained the same.


    4poon decomposition after $C days


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    !he hypothesis that biodegradable spoons lose

    some of their weight after as little & weeks in thesoil, is proven to be correct. t $C days, it wasevident that the corn starch-based spoons and thewheat-based spoons had begun to decompose,but this was not the case for the plastic spoons.

    More than 20 million tons of plastic materials are

    produced around the globe every year. Out ofthese, only a small percentage is recycled. Thedifficulty faced in the recycling of plastic material isthat most plastic waste matter comes mixedtogether with other types organic wastes. Theprocess of separating the plastic from organicwaste is time consuming and costly. However, in

    the case of biodegradable plastics, the presence

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    of organic waste actually aids the process ofdecomposition! "iodegradable plastics may be agood alternative to regular plastic, in order to

    prevent the pollution of our environment.

    #lso consider

    !ry to repeat this science fair proect, this time,

    evaluating different environments fordecomposition, such as by immersing the plastic inlake water or vegetable oil.

    Gou could also try repeating the science proectwith other types or brands of biodegradablespoons, or by introducing specific species of

    bacteria into the soil.