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Investigatory project chemistry

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Plastic toys for children to that fabrics you wear, from food to wood; hardly there is any industry where coloring material that color commodities of our day to day use. Dyes are applied everywhere, from a natural or synthetic substance used to add a color or to change the color of something. Dyes are the dyes are not used commercially.

A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. It is an Ionising and aromatic organic compounds. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution, and may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber.

With the help of dyes we can easily manipulate things according to our liking. At the very basic level the use of color in identifying individual components of tissue sections can be accomplished primarily with dyes. Dyes are applied to numerous substrates for example to textiles, leather, plastic, paper, food etc.

The rule that we apply to other chemicals is similarly applicable to dyes also. They also get completely or atleast partially soluble in which it is being put to. For example certain kind of dyes can be toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic and can be hazardous to health.

What makes the Dyes colored?Dyes are basically ionising and aromatic compounds, they have Chromophores present in them. Their structures have Aryl rings that has delocalised electron systems. These structures are said to be responsible for the absorption of electromagnetic radiation that has varying wavelengths, based upon the energy of the electron clouds.

Chomophores make the dyes proficient in their ability to absorb radiation. Chromophores act by making energy changes in the delocalised electron cloud of the dye. This alteration invariably results in the compound absorbing radiation within the visible range of colors and not outside it. Human eyes detects this absorption, and responds to the colors.

Electrons may result in loss of color, their removal may cause the rest of the electrons to revert to the local orbits. A very good example is the Schiff's reagent. As Sulphurous acid reacts with Pararosanilin, what happens is that a Sulphonic group attaches itself to the compound's central carbon atom. This hampers the conjugated double bond system of the Quinoid ring, and causes the electrons to become localised. As a consequence the ring ceases to be a Chromophore. As a result, the dye becomes colorless.

To conclude chromophores are the atomic configurations which has delocalised electrons. Generally they are represented as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur. They can have alternate single and double bonds.

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What gives the Dyes Solubility and Cohesiveness?Auxochrome, the only substance responsible for providing solubility and cohesiveness to dyes. An auxochrome is a group of atoms attached to a chromophore which modifies the ability of that chromophore to absorb light. Examples include the hydroxyl group (-OH), the amino group (-NH2), and an aldehyde group (-CHO).The presence of an auxochrome in the chromogen molecule is essential to make a dye. However, if an auxochrome is present in the meta position to the chromophore, it does not affect the color.Auxochrome has the ability to intensify colors. It is a group of atoms which attaches to non-ionising compounds yet has the ability to ionise. Auxochromes are of two types, positively charged or negatively charged.

Classification of DyesDyes can be classified in several ways, each class has a very unique chemistry, structure and particular way of bonding. Some dyes can react chemically with the substrates forming strong bonds in the process, and others can be held by physical forces. Some of the prominent ways of classification are given below

Natural / Synthetic Organic / Inorganic By area and method of application Chemical classification - Based on

the nature of their respective chromophores.

By nature of the Electronic Excitation

According to the dyeing methods Anionic (for Protein fibre) Direct (Cellulose) Disperse (Polyamide fibres)

US International Trade Commission has advocated the most popular classification of dyes. This system classifies dyes into 12 types, which are given below:

Group Application

Direct Cotton, cellulosic and blended fibres

Vat dyes Cotton, cellulosic and blended fibres

Sulphur Cotton, cellulosic fibre

Organic pigments Cotton, cellulosic, blended fabric, paper

Reactive Cellulosic fibre and fabric

Disperse dyes Synthetic fibres

Acid Dyes Wool, silk, paper, synthetic fibres, leather

Azoic Printing Inks and Pigments

Basic Silk, wool, cotton

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Type of Dyes

The Dyes are classified based on the products to which they can be applied and the chemical nature of each dye. Dyes are complex unsaturated aromatic having characteristics like solubility, intense color, sub-stansiveness and fastness. A dye-formulation is supposed to have approximately 10-80% pure dyestuff. It is mostly observed that dyestuffs delivered in powder form have a higher value. While a lower value is obtained for the liquid formulations.

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MALACHITE GREEN INTRODUCTIONAlternative titles: aniline green; benzaldehyde green; china green

Malachite green, also called aniline green, benzaldehyde green, or china

green, triphenylmethane dyeused medicinally in dilute solution as a local antiseptic. Malachite

green is effective against fungi and gram-positive bacteria. In the fish-breeding industry it has

been used to control the fungus Saprolegnia,a water mold that kills the eggs and young fry.

Malachite green also is used as a direct dye for silk, wool, jute, and leather and to dye cotton

that has been mordanted with tannin. Prepared from benzaldehyde and dimethylaniline, the

dye occurs as lustrous green crystals soluble in water and in alcohol.



Test tube Water bath Flask Beaker Watch glass China dish


3 ml of benzaldehyde 6 ml of dimethylaniline 3 g of Anhydrous ZnCl2

2 g of PbO2 4 g of sodium sulphate in cold water

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1. Place 3 g of anhydrous ZnCl2 in a china dish and 3 ml of benzaldehyde and 6ml of dimethylaniline to it.

2. Cover it with watch glass andheat for about 90 minute on a water bath. Stir frequently and if the mixture becomes very viscous to stir, add 1 ml of hot water.

3. While the china dish is still on the water bath, add 5 ml of water, stir the contents with a glass rod to dissolve the maximum dye and transfer the solution to 400ml beaker.

4. Add 125 ml of ice cold water. Leuco form of the dye is obtained. With stirring, now add a suspension of 2 g PbO2 in 20 ml of water and then 4 g of sodium sulphate in 20 ml of water to it. Warm and filter.

OBSERVATION: A dark green dye is obtained.


Malachite green is traditionally used as a dye. Millions of kilograms of MG and related triarylmethane dyes are produced annually for this purpose.[3]

MG is active against the protozoan Saprolegnia, which infects fish eggs in commercial aquaculture, MG is used to treat parasites and is used as anantibacterial.] It is a very popular treatment against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in freshwater aquaria. The principal metabolite, LMG, is found in fish treated with malachite green, and this finding is the basis of controversy and government regulation. See also Antimicrobials in aquaculture.MG has frequently been used to catch thieves and pilferers. The bait, usually money, is sprinkled with the anhydrous powder. Anyone handling the contaminated money will find that on upon washing the hands, a green stain on the skin that lasts for several days will result.

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Test tube Weighing balance Burner Conical flask


2g Resorcinol 2g Phthalic anhydride 5% NaOH 2ml Conc. H2SO4


1. Take 2g Resorcinol and 2g Phthalic anhydride and add 2ml conc. H2SO4 to it.2. Heat the content on burner till the content turns black.3. Cool the contents and add 20 ml of 5% NaOH in a conical flask.4. Vary concentration of NaOH and water to obtain different intensities of colour.


The dye formed shows fluorescence. It appears green from some angle and orangish yellow from others. The dye when put in sink with a large amount of water turned into bright yellow colour.

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