CGC1D Gr. 9 Geography of Canada Maps: The Geographers Basic Tools Slide 2 An Introduction to Mapping 1.Parts of a Map Map Symbols Mapping Your Location 2.Types of Maps Grid Systems Topographic Map Study 3.Using Latitude and Longitude 4.Political Map of Canada (already completed!) 5.Pear Island Mapping Exercise Slide 3 1. What is a Map? A map is a representation of the Earths features drawn on a flat surface. Maps use symbols and colours to represent features of an area, simplifying the real world. Slide 4 Features on a Map A. Title identifies the area shown, topic, focus, or purpose of the map B. Legend explains the meaning of symbols and colours used on the map C. Scale represents the relationship between distance on the map and distance in the real world D. Direction often represented with an arrow E. Border sets the map apart from other information F. Date of Publication indicates how recent the map is Slide 5 What are the points on a compass for? A compass is a way of finding direction The four cardinal points are N, E, S, W The points all have corresponding degrees of a circle (0 360) Slide 6 Types of Maps Road Maps Mostly use alphanumeric system (like Battleship!) Topographic Maps Use military grid system (4 numbers or 6 numbers) Thematic Maps Slide 7 Types of Maps Road Maps A map drawn to scale using symbols and colours to indicate major highways and roads for transportation purposes Often other features are shown on road maps such as parks, hospitals, and tourist attractions Can be both small scale (a country map) and large scale (a city map) Slide 8 Types of Maps Topographic Maps A map that indicates scale, using symbols and colours for both natural and human features on the Earths surface Shows the Earths surface in great detail (large scale) Depicts the height of land features (topography) Often shows roads, settlements, vegetation cover, power lines, etc. Slide 9 Types of Maps Thematic Maps A map that reveals the geographic patterns of statistical data Usually focuses on one theme or topic (e.g. population distribution) Are designed to display distributions over the Earths surface Slide 10 Text Assignment Use your textbook and your text assignment to answer Qs #4-7 Slide 11 Lines on the Earth Latitude imaginary lines that measure the distance north or south of the Equator (0) lines are parallel to the Equator at regular intervals (approximately 111 kilometres apart) Slide 12 Lines on the Earth Longitude imaginary lines that measure the distance east or west of the Prime Meridian (0) all lines begin and end at the poles and therefore are not at a fixed distance apart the Prime Meridian (0) was arbitrarily chosen at a point that runs through Greenwich, England the International Date Line (180) is the point where one day begins and one day ends Slide 13 Lines on the Earth The Prime Meridian Slide 14 Lines on the Earth Time Zones Slide 15 Text Assignment Complete questions # 8-10 using the textbook and your text assignment Slide 16 Scale Direct Statement Scale uses words to describe what a distance on a map represents in the real world 1 cm = 10 kilometres Linear Scale uses a special ruler on a map to show what a distance on a map represents in the real world 0 km400 km Representative Fraction Scale is a ratio where one unit on a map represents a specific number of the same unit in the real world 1:50 000 (1 cm on the map represents 50 000 cm, or 0.5 km in the real world) to help you convert remember that 1 km = 100 000 cm Slide 17 Scale AreaDetailExample Large Scale Maps SmallA lot (streets, schools, railways, ) Topographic maps, road maps, city bus maps Small Scale Maps LargeA little (borders, lakes, large rivers, ) Globes, world maps, atlases Slide 18 Scale Mapping Our Location Anderson Collegiate Map Slide 19 Scale Mapping Our Location Anderson Community Map Slide 20 Scale Mapping Our Location Town of Whitby Map Slide 21 Scale Mapping Our Location Region of Durham Map Slide 22 Scale Mapping Our Location Southern Ontario Map Slide 23 Scale Mapping Our Location Ontario Map Slide 24 Scale Mapping Our Location Canada Map Slide 25 Scale Mapping Our Location World Map Slide 26 Text Assignment Complete questions #11-13 of the text assignment using your textbook.