Centre for Information & Knowledge Management INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT Jamie O’Brien Centre for Information & Knowledge Management University of

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<ul><li><p> Centre for Information &amp; Knowledge Management</p><p>INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT</p><p>Jamie OBrienCentre for Information &amp; Knowledge ManagementUniversity of Limerick</p><p>Lecture 1</p><p>E-mail: jamie.a.obrien@ul.ie</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Your LecturerMy name is Jamie OBrien</p><p>Researcher in Economics and Knowledge Management</p><p>Academic Background</p><p>Commercial experience</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>ExamAssessment Weighting:Class Exercises are designed to reflect the focus of the course</p><p>80% Examination</p><p>40% Coursework (due March 24th)</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Class Website</p><p>Lectures</p><p>Readings</p><p>Exam Papers</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Course StructureEach lecture concerned with a key module of the course material (the last lecture will include a review/ Q and A session).</p><p>See course description for proposed lecture sequence. </p><p>What we do in lectures will be the exam!</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Class StructureWednesdays 10-1</p><p>15 minute breaks</p><p>Be on time!</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Recommended ReadingBusiness Information Systems 3rd ed, Technology, Development &amp; Management for the E-Business, Bocij, Chaffey, Greasley, Hickie.</p><p>Strategic Planning for Information Systems 3rd ed, John Ward, Joe Peppard</p><p>Strategic Management and Information Systems, An integrated approach, (2nd ed), Wendy Robson</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>What we will cover todayData, Information, Knowledge.</p><p>Drivers for Information Management.</p><p>Need for managing information.</p><p>Strategic Value of Information Systems.</p><p>The attributes of good quality information.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Introduction</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Organisational value is delivered not through technology but through applying information, by improved flows of information which require less resources, by better quality of information and knowledge sharing, which improves decision-making (Chaffey and Wood, 2004).</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>DataDiscrete, objective facts about events or items related to business processes and the external environment. Data are transformed into information by adding value through context, categorisation, calculations, corrections and condensation. Data has little or no value until it has been transformed into information. E.g. todays date, records of transactions.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>InformationData that has been processed and transformed into an organised, meaningful and contextually relevant form. Used for decision making. Eg. Bank statement, sales forecast.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Information:</p><p>Involves transforming data using a defined processInvolves placing data in some form of meaningful contextIs produced in response to an information needHelps reduce uncertainty, thereby improving decision behaviour</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Information enables organisations to: Sense what is happening in the external environment and respond through their strategy and tactics.Research demand for new products.Monitor and control operating processes for efficiency.Exchange information with partners.Communicate messages about products etc both internally and externally.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>KnowledgeThe combination of data and information to which is added expert opinion, skills and experience to result in a valuable asset which can be used to make decisions.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Business Information ManagementThe process of managing information as a strategic resource for improving organisational performance. This process involves developing strategies and introducing systems and controls to improve information quality to deliver value. </p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Information management is concerned with:</p><p>How information is acquired, recorded and storedWhere org information resources are locatedHow information flowsHow the organisation uses itHow people who handle it apply their skills and co-operate with one anotherHow IT supports the users of informationWhat information costs and the value it contributesHow these information related activities contribute towards the organisations objectives</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Information QualityAttributes of information quality include:Time:TimelinessCurrencyFrequencyTime periodContent:AccuracyRelevanceCompletenessConcisenessScope</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>FormClarityDetailOrderPresentationMediaAdditional characteristics:Confidence in the sourceReliabilityAppropriateReceived by correct personSent by correct channels</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Information Types and SourcesTypes:Structured presented in reports, tables, graphs etc.Unstructured delivered verbally or ad-hoc.Formal part of established reporting and communication, e.g. sales figures, supplier directory.Informal ad-hoc communication e.g. email or conversation. </p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Sources:</p><p>Internet and WWWCompany/independent reportsSearch enginesInvisible webIntranetExtranetEtc</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>The Information LifecycleThe sequence of activities involved in information management from creation through to permanent deletion of information. Information management is a dynamic process involving:</p><p>CapturingOrganisingProcessingMaintaining Destroying </p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Levels of Decision TakingAt the strategic level, managers are concerned with long term organisational planning. Decisions tend to be unstructured and made infrequently e.g. choosing to move into new markets.</p><p>At the tactical level, managers are concerned with medium term planning. They monitor organisational performance, allocate resources, control budgets e.g. setting department budget.</p><p>At the operational level, manager deal with short term planning, day-to-day activities. Decisions are highly structured e.g. setting daily production schedule. </p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Information characteristics for decisions by Mngt levelMngt levelTime periodFrequencySourceCertaintyScope DetailStrategicWideInfrequentExternalLess certainWideSummarisedTacticalOperationalNarrowFrequentInternalMore certainNarrowDetailed</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Introduction to Information Systems.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Data and InformationData are the raw material of information, and are typically a stream or sequence of numbers, letters or other characters.</p><p>Information informs by placing the raw data in some context or form that has some significance to a reader.Raw data alone has little value.</p><p>Examples of this data/information distinction.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>How does data become information?Data becomes information by the application of context.There are six major activities that enable data to be converted to Information.These activities are the essential functional basis of every information system (often abbreviated to IS).</p><p>Data as Input Info SystemInformation as Output</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>The Six ActivitiesCapturing </p><p>Transmitting</p><p>Storing</p><p>Retrieving</p><p>Manipulating</p><p>Displaying</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Purposes of Information SystemsWhy do organisations use Information Systems?</p><p>IS typically make three broad positive contributions to enabling organisations to attain their objectives:</p><p>Improving Efficiency.</p><p>Enabling Greater Effectiveness.</p><p>Helping to facilitate Competitive advantage.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>What do we know? Can be enormously beneficial</p><p> Difficult to implement and manage successfully</p><p> Easy scapegoat</p><p> Have profound effects on organisations</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>What Kind of effects?Information systems change:</p><p>The tasks or type of work people do.</p><p>How people are managed.</p><p>The structure of the organisation.</p><p>These effects are encapsulated in Leavitts Diamond.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Leavitts Diamond</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>How do tasks/type of work people do change?More efficient?</p><p>More effective?</p><p>More interesting?</p><p>Greater Flexibility?</p><p>Greater traceability/monitoring?</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>How does managing people change?Different skills/training needs</p><p>Different recruitment criteria</p><p>Greater traceability/monitoring</p><p>Ethical and behavioural concerns</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>How does organisational structure change?Flexibility of work practices</p><p>Greater information access</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Group Exercise 1: IS Effects (20 mins).You are the manager of a bank. In order to ensure cost effective training, you have instigated the development of an on-line training system to determine/assess learner needs and provide some basic induction information.</p><p>Use Leavitt's diamond to briefly explore the effects this new Information System could have on your offices structure, work and managerial processes?</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Advantages of Information SystemsAutomation</p><p>Employee Job Satisfaction</p><p>Information Access, Control and Structure</p><p>Scalability</p><p>Efficiency</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Disadvantages of Information SystemsUnemployment</p><p>Over-reliance</p><p>Information control issues</p><p>Employee job satisfaction</p><p>User expectations</p><p>Expense</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Information Drivers and Needs in Organisations</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Information Management DriversOrganisational Moves towards standardisation of information formats</p><p>Increasing Consumer Power</p><p>Changes in Employee loyalty behaviour</p><p>Need for Organisational Agility</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>What motivates IS adoption?Desire to Control information: Why? </p><p>Desire to capture and understand External information.</p><p>Desire to capture and understand Internal information.</p><p>Legal and/or ethical Imperatives.</p><p>Any other motivations?</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>What needs do IS therefore fulfil?Functional Needs </p><p>Imposed Needs</p><p>Extended NeedsControlInternal InformationExternal Information</p><p>Legal / Ethical Issues</p><p>External Information</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Examples of how IS meets information needs?Resource Control..Information System?</p><p>External information capture and understanding.. Information System?</p><p>Internal information capture and understanding. Information System?</p><p>Legal Imperatives. Information System?</p><p>Any other information needs?</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Group Ex 2: Information Needs (20 minutes).Think about and write down some points as regards what you feel to the critical information needs in an organisation and how your chosen system meets (or fails to meet) these needs.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Determining the information NeedsDetermining the Info needs is one of the most critical steps in developing a worthwhile information strategy.</p><p> Information Audits determine the needs.</p><p> Information Plans implement a strategy utilising the results of the audit.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Strategic advantages ofInformation systems</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Introduction to Information StrategyA successful information strategy typically:Reflects the functions and objectives of the business/organisation in question.Meets the functional information needs of the organisation;Aims to ensure that the information resources exist to meet those needs and these resources are appropriately organised and managed.Typically utilises information technology for the effective storage, retrieval, distribution, communication and security of the information.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Future proofing info systemsInformation systems that endure are those that are both:</p><p> Robust and Scalable.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Defining Robustness?Healthy, strong, and durable.</p><p>Consistent availability on demand.</p><p>Maximum Productivity.</p><p>Product of superior design and integrity testing.</p><p>Examples?</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Defining Scalability?A scalable system is one that can handle either: extra (or reduced) capacity or functionality, without consequences for system productivity/usability.Can scale vertically (scale up) or; horizontally (scale out).</p><p>Extra functionality the key issue prevents obsolescence.</p><p>Scalable system design requires experienced participants. </p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Group Ex 3: Strategic Value of IS (30 minutes).Think about and write down some detailed points as regards what you feel to the current (and future if relevant) strategic advantages of an organisations information system should be.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Attributes of Information Quality</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Attributes of Good Information?Time the When</p><p>Content the What.</p><p>Form the How.</p><p>Trust the Believability.</p><p>Channelling Right People /Right Time /Right Form.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Dimensions of TimeThe When..</p><p>Timeliness.</p><p>Currency.</p><p>Frequency.</p><p>Time Period.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Dimensions of ContentThe What..</p><p>Accuracy.</p><p>Relevance.</p><p>Completeness.</p><p>Conciseness.</p><p>Scope.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Dimensions of FormThe How.</p><p>Clarity.</p><p>Detail.</p><p>Order.</p><p>Presentation.</p><p>Media.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Dimensions of ChannellingRight People /Right Time /Right Form.</p><p>Mode of Transfer.</p><p>Identity of Receiver.</p><p>Identity of Transmitter.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>Group Ex 4: Information Quality (30 minutes)Read the circulated Case Study.</p><p>Discuss in Groups of 2-3 the following 2 questions:</p><p>What were the main information attributes (and sub-dimensions) lacking in the scenario?</p><p>What corrective measures would you recommend?</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>What we covered todayData, Information, Knowledge.</p><p>Drivers for Information Management.</p><p>Need for managing information.</p><p>Strategic Value of Information Systems.</p><p>The attributes of good quality information.</p><p>CIKM Centre </p></li><li><p>End of Lecture</p><p>CIKM Centre </p><p>************************************************************</p></li></ul>