128 LOWEX GUIDEBOOK
CASE STUDIES - BREGENZ- ART MUSEUM
Building type residential, office, school, otherotherotherotherotherHeating generation boilerboilerboilerboilerboiler,,,,, central heat pump, DH, solar, cogeneration, otherHeating emission radiators/convectors, floorfloorfloorfloorfloor, wall, , wall, , wall, , wall, , wall, ceiling,ceiling,ceiling,ceiling,ceiling, airCooling generation heat pump, DC, otherotherotherotherotherCooling emission radiators/convectors, floorfloorfloorfloorfloor, wall, ceiling,, wall, ceiling,, wall, ceiling,, wall, ceiling,, wall, ceiling, airStorage storage tank,storage tank,storage tank,storage tank,storage tank, aquifer, other
The incredibly self-confident, calm
presence of the House of Art
rooms stacked one above the
other - with their sensitive, natural
lighting - would be inconceivable
had the architect not come across
the new, and at the time still
scarcely known, heating and
cooling system with thermoactive
components during development
of his draft design.
The four storey building has a double skinexternal envelope with an outer openedglass wall. In the original design an airconditioning system with 25 000 m/h airwas planned. Due to difficulties in gettingspace for the ducts and the visibility of theducts between the glass ceiling and theconcrete slab another solution was needed.The requirements of high level stability ofroom temperature and relative air humiditybrought further challenge to the duty. Thehigh energy demand and high level of noiseemissions of conventional air-conditioningsystems called for a new solution. In this artmuseum the space heating is provided witha hydronic system embedded in thebuilding structure. In addition, two-zonedisplacement ventilation provides a minu-mum of outside air.
GENERAL DATAPrincipal: Land VorarlbergArchitect: Peter ZumthorConstructor:Installer:Energyconcept: Meierhans & Partners,
and J. BohleHand-over: Opened in July 1997
BUILDING DATABuilding envelope: U (W/m2K)facade double skinrooffloorglazingAir tightness:Volume: 28 000 m3
Surface area: 3 340 mSpecific heat load:Specific cooling load:
AUT 1AUT 1AUT 1AUT 1AUT 1
129EXAMPLES OF LOWEX BUILDINGS
GENERAL DESCRIPTIONThe fully integrated soft HVAC-technolo-
gy for this special building is based on afurther development of concrete corecooling which had been developed for anoffice building a few years previously inclose co-operation with th architect and histeam (Meierhans 1996). The concrete,visible everywhere, enables dynamiccoupling of room climate to water-cooled
and heated walls and ceilings. The ventila-tion system no longer has to perform thetasks of heating and cooling - its onlyfunction is that of air renewal. The heatingand cooling process is carried out using thethermoactive building mass. It is thereforefully integrated in both senses of the word,because not only are the room climate andthe building mass coupled actively andpassively, but also because it has been
Museum in Bregenz with pipes embed-ded in walls and concrete slabs forheating and cooling. Details show thedisplacement ventilation and thegeneration system for cooling andheating.
DESCRIPTION OF INSTALLATIONS
130 LOWEX GUIDEBOOK
possible to accommodate all peripheralclimatic components in the load-bearingbuilding structure. This did not involve theusual compromise of concealing a neces-sary evil, but rather the integration of asimilarly minimised, but clearly arrangedinfrastructure.
Finely branched air supply pipes were setin concrete in the ceilings in stead of largesupply and exhaust ducts covered bysuspended ceilings. There is not a singleplace where an air duct or heating pipecould be hidden behind a screen or asuspended ceiling.
EXPERIENCES - MEASUREMENTS
COMFORTThe number of visitors had been severely
underestimated (estimated 250 visitors/dayvs. 1 000 visitors/day in reality). Theguaranteed values are however satisfiedwithout any problems during normaloperation of the museum (Figures AUT 1.1and AUT 1.2).
ENERGY USEThe energy and operation costs are more
than 50 % lower in comparison with otherfully air-conditioned art museums.
Figure AUT 1.1. Measurements of temperature and relative humidity in October 1997.
OCCUPANTSSome members of the staff found that
the maximum summer room temperature,which had been set to 26 C, was unpleas-antly high under the conditions of high airhumidity required for the exhibits. Themaximum value was lowered.
EXPERIENCES - USERS
Figure AUT 1.2. Temperature readings in April 2000. Air temperature 0.1 and 3.0 meter abovefloor together with floor surface temperature.
Condensing gas boilerCooling generation:
Plastic pipes in concretefoundations and pillars
Emission system:Concrete slab cooling inceilings and walls, 28 000 m ofplastic pipes
Costs of heat emission system:Total heating, cooling andventilation system 1 000 000 compared to first planned full AirConditioning 2 000 000
Displacement, 750 m/h pr. floor
Meierhans, R., Olesen, B.W. 2002.House of Art in Bregenz -Soft HVAC for aStrong Architecture. ASHRAE-Transactions-2002, Part 2.