Career developmentChallenges of H.R.D Professionals 1.Increasing work force diversity. 2.Competing in a global economy. 3. Eliminating the skill gap 4.The need for life long learning 5.Facilitating organisational learning.
What is career?. The occupation itself. Ones progression with in an an organisation. Status of a profession eg-Law,engineering which is career.But plumbing,carpentry ,general office work is not profession. Career is involvement in work Stability of a persons job.A sequence of related jobs is career where as unrelated jobs does not.
New employment relationship Down sizing and outsourcing-this resulted the change in employment relationship from paternalism to exchange relationship for the mutual benefit of both parties. No promise of long term security.Future of the employees is their own responsibility. Employees role is obtain opportunities to remain employable. Employees has to assume responsibility for dveloping and maintaining their own skill . They have to ensure demonstrable value to the organisation. They have to understand the nature of their employers business
Role of employers Provide opportunities for skill development and training and education. Employee involvement in decision making, Assistance with career management [coaching and mentoring] and performance based compensation. Boundaryless career-a career not bound to one organisation or profession.That is the new concept.
Career planning Becoming aware of self,opportunities,constraints ,choices,and consequences. Idetifying career related goals Programing work,education,and related developmental experiences to attain career goal. The focus of career planning is on the individual eventhough they get outside help. Career plans first set of actions next leads to achievement of the goal.
Career management Career management is an ongoing process of preparing, implementing,and monitoring career plans under taken by the individual. Career management has to ensure the organisations H.R needs are met. Career management is an activity carried out by the management. Eg- succession planning.It is nothing but senior management decides which employees can and should be prepared to replace people in positions of greater responsibility .
Career development activitiesCareer management and career planning can be coplementary and can reinforce each other. A balance between the two makes better career development.
Employee centered career planning Self directed . Work books. Tape casettes. Company run career planning work shops. Corporate seminar on organisational work shops.
Multi focus. Manager-Employee planning Manager employee career discussions. Developmental assesment centre with feed back. Career management-organisation centred. 1. Corporate talent inventories. 2. Corporate succession planning.
Career planning Career is a sequence of work related positions occupied by a person during a life time. Factors influencing the career 1.People who have influenced 2. Major work achievements 3.Successful and happy at work 4.Risks taken 5.Helped others
Define Career planning Career planning is a process of systamatically matching career goals and individual capabilities with opprtunities for their fulfilment. Career planning is the process of enhancing an employees future value. A career plan is an individuals choice of occupation ,organization and career path.
Characteristics of career planning It is an ongoing process It develops a personal life career diagram. It defines life career,abilities,and interest of employees. It tells about individuals life career and organization. Helps individuals to develop skills. It strengthern work related activities in the organization.
Objectives of career planningTo develop an awareness of each employees uniqueness. To identify positive characteristics of employees To identify personal qualities and events . To identify personal interests,abilities,strength and weakness and how they relate to careers.
To get an understanding of personality and professional goal and how they can be aligned to organizational mission. To recognize differences in the way people see abilities of others. To foster effective team building skills. To create healthy ways of dealing with conflicts in self and others.
To attract ,engage,and retain talented professionals. To develop motivation and commitment.
Importance of career planning Organisation depends on the caliber of H.R. Career planning is not promotion and advancement. Today organizations are flat.So no much promotion possibilities. H.R department plan future employment needs.Through career planning they get the right people.
Career planning ensures constant supply of promotionable employees. Develop potential abilities of employees. Career planning reduces employee turnover. Career planning discourage hoarding.
Career planning process Career planning process encourages individuals to explore and gather information which will enable them to synthesize ,gain competencies ,make decisions ,set goals,and take action.The steps are as follows.
1.Self Assesment. This step involves gathering information about self to assist in making a decision about a career.-values,interests,aptitudes,abilities ,personal traits and life style. It can be started by Learning interests Listing accomplishments Understanding phisical and psychological needs.
Assessing aspiration and motivation level. Understanding personal trait. Self assesment is done though Work book or workshops Skill assessment exercises Completing interest inventory SWOT analysis
Career SWOT analysisEmployees strength Work experience proper education strong job knowledge transferable skill Positive personal characteristics Good net working
Employees weakness Lack of work experience No proper education. Lack of job knowledge Weak skills Negative personal characteristics poor net working
Employees opportunities HR market Cashing on high education Skill shortages Increased self knowledge increased professional development good networking possess unique skills
Employee threats Down size in HR market Competition from fellow professionals Other competitors Limited professional development poor networking
2. Career exploration An employee will begin to explore potential careers ,gather information about those careers and match it with self assesment. Investigate career market. Seek information from academic advisors. Attend job/ career fair.
3.Career goal setting. Individuals evaluate occupational choices and gain practical experiences through internships ,cooperative education,industrial training etc. Decisions about occupational choices can be made through individual career counselling. Information services.
Career development activities are Projects,coaching,role play,videos,audio-tapes,and website browsing.
4. Career preparation It can be done by learning how to prepare saleable resume and cover letters and complete employment applications, implementing job search strategies and practicing skills for appearing interviews successfully. Organizations should provide the following services to employees. 1.Mentoring-advising,role modeling,sharing contacts etc. 2.Coaching. 3.Job rotation 4.Career assistance programme. 5.Managing self development.[Taking positive actions,increasing knowledge and skills]
5.Self marketingHigh performance employees are Self directed. Enjoy work Accept responsibility and accountability. Marginal performance employees. Little ambition Dislike work Avoid responsibility and accountability.
Stages of life and career development A persons life or career is by identifying common experiences,challenges or tasks people go through as their life progresses. A persons career is influenced by life events.
Erikson model of adult development.He proposed that people progress through 8 stages in lifepsychological and social issues-facing challenges which must be resolved. 1.Basic trust verses mistrust- infancy 2.Autonomy vs shame and doubt. 4 to 5 3.Initiative vs guilt ------ 6 to 11 4.Industry vs inferiority.6 to 11 5.Identity vs role confusion---------puberty and adolescence 6.Intimacy vs isolation----Young adulthood 7.generativity vs stagnationMiddle adulthood 8.ego integrity vs despair------maturity
Fifth stage is adolescence.-conflict between identity and role confusion.If not successfully resolve people will enter adulthood with confusion. Last 3 stages- issues facing with adult development. If successfully completes he can mingle with groups.otherwise isolation.
Erikson calls middle adulthood as Generativity.more involved in ones children,Social issues or mentor for young generation.Failure in this stage results stagnation-no contribution to the world. Finally in the maturity stage the individual faces issues of ego integrity.Accept the choices one has made in life. Successful development of ego leads to peaceful death.Failure in this stage lead to despair.
Ego integrity ,generativity,and intimacy can affect the career choices the individuals make. Organization has to help employees to resolve these challenges Employees nearing retirement are facing many sources of stress .To avoid this issue preretirement counseling ,and motivational programs geared towards old workers which yield benefits to both.
Roles in career managementIndividual rolePeople must learn how to gain knowledge and become more adaptable.Jones and Defllippi distilled six competencies that were possessed by people which they argue typify new career land scape.These competencies are
Understanding the industries, opportunities, threats and requirements Understand the meaning,motives and interests for pursuing a career