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    CHAPTER I

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 The Background of the Study

    Every day in daily life, people use language as a means of communication

    which involves the process of sending and receiving information. Language is

    used as a media to express ones feeling and idea. In the process of

    communication, the language structure used to express ones meaning can be

    different from the language structure used by others; moreover, when people from

    different countries with different languages and cultural backgrounds involve in

    the communication. Thus, in order to make the communication possible, the

    translation process is needed.

    Translation is the process of changing speech or writing from one

    language (source language) into another language (target language) (Richard,

    1985 : 229). The desire to know and understand information, namely since,

    technology, and knowledge, translating form the SL and TL is need.

    A work of translation requires many aspects in order to produce a good

    translation. Since it involves two different language, namely source language (SL)

    and target language (TL), therefore a translator should know both SL and TL,

    should be familiar with the subject matter and should be some facilities the

    expression in target language (TL) (Brislin, 1976:71). In translation there must be

    a correspondence of meaning between source language and target language. For

    the translator, it is not easy to transfer the message the two languages because

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    every language has different structure or grammar. The translator has to transfer

    the message as exactly as possible.

    One of the element grammar is conjunction that used to link words,

    phrases, and clauses together and provide a smooth transition between ideas.

    Conjunction refers to the use of formal markers to link sentences or the bigger

    parts of text, which also realize semantic relations between parts of text and;

    therefore, functions as a cohesive device. Baker (1991: 191)

    Conjunctive elements are cohesive not in themselves but directly, by virtue

    of their specific meanings; they are not primarily devices for reaching out into the

    preceding (or following) text, but they express certain meanings which presuppose

    the presence of other components in the discourse (Halliday: 1976:266)

    Conjunctive adverbs are not connecting words, they are transitional words.

    As a result, they can occur at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of either

    the second of the two clauses in a compound sentence or in the second of two

    related sentences. If they are used in a compound sentence, a semicolon is

    ordinarily used to connect the two clauses, although a colon, a dash, or a comma

    along with a coordinating conjunction is sometimes possible. Wherever they are

    found, coordinating conjunctions are set off from the sentence in which they are

    located by commas. The conjunctive relations are not logical but textual; they

    represent the generalized types of connection that recognize as holding between

    sentences.

    The basic purpose of translation is to reproduce various types of texts,

    comprising literary, religious, scientific, or philosophical texts in another language

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    and thus making them available to wider readers, to a greater number of target

    audience and to bring the world closer. So, translation is very important, not only

    in scientific and technology books, but also in literary books.

    Literary book is the art of written work. Literature may consist of texts

    based on factual information (journalistic or non-fiction), as well as on original

    imagination, such as poetry, prose, short story, novel, play and etc.

    Novel is one example of literature work, and inside of it there is an

    equivalent effect to reader. The researcher uses the novel written by Elizabeth

    Gilberts Novel Eat, Pray, Love into Makan, Doa, Cinta by Silamurti

    Nugroho. This novel was an international bestseller, translated into over thirty

    languages, with over 10 million copies sold worldwide. In 2010, Eat, Pray, Love

    was made into a film starring Julia Roberts, and some Indonesia players like

    Chritina Hakim, Hadi Subiyanto, and etc. The novel became so popular that Time

    Magazine named Elizabeth as one of the 100 most influential people in the world.

    The subject of this research is the conjunctive relation in the novel its

    translation into Indonesia. This research tries to analyze the conjunctive elements

    in the novel and its translation into Indonesia. The reason why this topic is

    interesting to be discussed is because in this novel the researcher can find various

    kinds of conjunctive relation that can be analyzed. The difference between the

    Indonesian and English conjunctive relation and how they are coded in the novel

    will be discussed in this research.

    Some previous researches had been conducted in dealing with this novel

    by university student . One of the research is Damayanti, O (2013) in her thesis

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    Translation Shift on The Translation of Noun Phrase in Elizabeth Gilberts

    Novel Eat, Pray, Love into Makan, Doa, Cinta by Silamurti Nugroho.

    Damayanti, O (2013) was the student of Faculty Humanities Dian Nuswantoro

    University of Semarang. In this thesis she discuses the findings of translation shift

    of noun phrases used inEat,Pray, Love novel translated intoMakan, Doa, Cinta.

    Another research was conducted by Harmeigawati, D (2010) in her thesis

    entitled Usaha Liz Dalam Menemukan Keseimbangan Hidup Dalam Novel Eat,

    Pray, Love Karya Elizabeth Gilbert. She was a student of English Department,

    Faculty of Literature, Diponegoro University.

    Based on all the explanations above, the writer is concerned in researching

    deeply the analysis of the conjunctive relation in the novel pray, eat and love its

    translation into Indonesian.

    1.2 The Problems of the Study

    Talking about literary book especially in novel we can not avoid talking

    about conjunctions, since conjunction is one of the elements that construct a

    sentence. The use of conjuntion become a phenomenon and interested study to

    research. Regarding to the topic that is going to be discussed, this research

    addreses the following problem:

    1. What types of conjunctive relations are there in the source language and how

    are the conjunctive relations translated in the target language?

    2. What kinds of procedures are applied by the translator in translating conjunctive

    relations in the novel?

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    3. Are there any loss and gain of information occuring in the target language?

    1.3 The Scope of the Study

    This study is only concerned with the novel entitled Eat, Pray, Love

    which is used as the data source of conjunctive relations and their translations in

    IndonesianMakan, Doa, Cinta translated by Silamukti Nugroho. The discussion

    of the research will cover:

    1. The identification of conjunctive relations in the novel.

    2. The identification of procedure of translating the conjunctive relations into the

    target language.

    3. The identifications of loss and gain of information of English conjunctive

    relations into their Indonesian translation.

    1.4 The Objectives of the Study

    In general this research aims at improving my knowledge, especially in the

    area of translation, as well as to put into application the theories and concepts of

    translation by conducting a research. The research focuses on the functions of the

    conjunctive relations in English and their translation in Indonesian. The objectives

    of the study are more specifically as follow :

    1. To identify the types of conjunctive relations found in the novel and how the

    conjunctive relations are translated in the novel

    2. To find out the procedures applied by the translator in translating the

    conjunctive relations in the novel

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    3. To analize the loss and gain that occur in translating conjunctive relations into

    the target language

    1.5 The Significances of the Study

    Based on the problems in translating English conjunctives into Indonesian

    and the objectives of the study, the significance of the study is stated as follows:

    1) The result of this study can be used as additional knowledge to improve the

    vocabulary of conjunctive relations for Indonesian learners who study English.

    2) The result of the study is expected to be able to improve the ability of

    Indonesian learners in studying English and the quality of translation in

    Indonesian.

    3) This study is also useful to anyone who is doing translation. For the translators

    this study can be used to improve the quality of translation.

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    CHAPTER II

    REVIEW OF LITURATURE

    2.1. The Definition of Translation

    Translation is the comprehension of the meaning of a text and the

    subsequent production of an equivalent text, likewise called a "translation," that

    communicates the same message in another language. The text to be translated is

    called the source language (SL) or source text (ST), an