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AP Biology 2008-2009 Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life

07 Cell Organelle

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Text of 07 Cell Organelle

  • 1. 2008-2009 Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life

2. Types of cells bacteria cells animal cells plant cells Prokaryote - no organelles Eukaryotes - organelles 3. Cell size comparison

  • micron = micrometer = 1/1,000,000 meter
  • diameter of human hair = ~20 microns
  • most bacteria
    • 1-10 microns
  • eukaryotic cells
    • 10-100 microns

Bacterial cell Animal cell 4. Why study cells?

  • CellsTissuesOrgansBodies
    • bodies are made up of cells
    • cells do all the work of life!

5.

  • What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live
    • breathe
      • gas exchange: CO 2vs. O 2
    • eat
      • take in & digest food
    • make energy
      • ATP
    • build molecules
      • proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids
    • remove wastes
    • control internal conditions
    • respond to external environment
    • build more cells
      • growth, repair, reproduction & development

The Work of Life ATP 6. Organelles

  • Organelles do the work of cells
    • each structure has a job to do
      • keeps the cell alive; keeps you alive

Model Animal Cell 7. Cells need power !

  • Making energy
    • to fuel daily life & growth, the cell must
      • take in food & digest it
      • take in oxygen (O 2 )
      • make ATP
      • remove waste
    • organelles that do this work
      • cell membrane
      • lysosomes
      • vacuoles & vesicles
      • mitochondria

ATP 8. Cell membrane

  • Function
    • separates cell from outside
    • controls what enters or leaves cell
      • O 2 ,CO 2 , food, H 2 O, nutrients, waste
    • recognizes signals from other cells
      • allows communication between cells
  • Structure
    • double layer of fat
      • phospholipid bilayer
    • receptor molecules
      • proteins

lipid tail phosphate head 9. cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holdingorganelles in place 10. Vacuoles & vesicles

  • Function
    • moving materialaround cell
    • storage
  • Structure
    • membrane sac

small food particle vacuole digesting food inside cell 11. Food & water storage plant cells animal cells contractile vacuolecentral vacuolefood vacuoles 12. cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holdingorganelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage 13. Lysosomes

  • Function
    • digest food
    • clean up & recycle
      • digest broken organelles
  • Structure
    • membrane sac of digestive enzymes

small food particle vacuole digesting food lysosomes digesting broken organelles 14. lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holdingorganelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage 15.

  • Function
    • make ATP energy from cellular respiration
      • sugar + O 2 ATP
      • fuels the work of life
  • Structure
    • double membrane

Mitochondria inbothanimal & plant cells ATP 16. lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holdingorganelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage mitochondria make ATP energyfrom sugar + O 2 17.

  • Mitochondria
    • make energy from sugar + O 2
      • cellular respiration
      • sugar + O 2ATP
  • Chloroplasts
    • make energy + sugar from sunlight
      • photosynthesis
      • sunlight + CO 2 ATP & sugar
        • ATP = active energy
        • sugar = stored energy
          • build leaves & roots & fruitout of the sugars

Plants make energy two ways ! ATP sugar ATP 18. Mitochondria are in both cells !! animal cells plant cells mitochondria chloroplast 19. central vacuole storage: food,water or waste mitochondria make ATP incellular respiration chloroplast make ATP & sugars inphotosynthesis cell wall support cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals lysosome digestion & clean up cytoplasm 20. Cells need workers (proteins) !

  • Making proteins
    • to run daily life & growth, the cell must
      • read genes (DNA)
      • build proteins
        • structural proteins (muscle fibers, hair, skin, claws)
        • enzymes (speed up chemical reactions)
        • signals (hormones) & receptors
    • organelles that do this work
      • nucleus
      • ribosomes
      • endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
      • Golgi apparatus

21. Proteins do all the work!cells DNA proteins one of the major job of cells is to make proteins, because proteins do all the work! signals structure enzymes receptors 22. Nucleus

  • Function
    • control center of cell
    • protects DNA
      • instructions for building proteins
  • Structure
    • nuclear membrane
    • nucleolus
      • ribosome factory
    • chromosomes
      • DNA

23. lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holdingorganelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage mitochondria make ATP energyfrom sugar + O 2 nucleus protects DNA controls cell chromosomes DNA 24. Ribosomes

  • Function
    • protein factories
    • read instructions to build proteins from DNA
  • Structure
    • 2 subunits
    • somefreein cytoplasm
    • someattachedto ER

Ribosomes on ER large subunit small subunit 25. lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holdingorganelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage mitochondria make ATP energyfrom sugar + O 2 nucleus protects DNA controls cell ribosomes builds proteins 26. Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Function
    • part of protein factory
      • helps complete theproteins
    • makes membranes
  • Structure
    • rough ER
      • ribosomes attached
      • works on proteins
    • smooth ER
      • makes membranes

27. lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holdingorganelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage mitochondria make ATP energyfrom sugar + O 2 nucleus protects DNA controls cell ribosomes builds proteins ER helps finish proteins makes membranes 28.

  • Function
    • finishes, sorts, labels & ships proteins
      • like UPS headquarters
        • shipping & receiving department
    • ships proteins invesicles
      • UPS trucks
  • Structure
    • membrane sacs

Golgi Apparatus transport vesicles vesicles carrying proteins 29. cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holdingorganelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage mitochondria make ATP energyfrom sugar + O 2 nucleus protects DNA controls cell ribosomes builds proteins ER helps finish proteins makes membranes Golgi apparatus finishes, packages& ships proteins lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling 30. DNA RNA ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum vesicle Golgiapparatus vesicle protein on its way! protein finished protein Making Proteins TO: nucleus TO: TO: TO: 31. central vacuole storage: food,water or waste mitochondria make ATP incellular respiration chloroplast make ATP & sugars inphotosynthesis cell wall support cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals Golgi apparatus finish & shipproteins nucleus control cell protects DNA endoplasmic reticulum processes proteins makes membranes lysosome digestion & clean up cytoplasm ribosomes make proteins 32. Cells need to make more cells !

  • Making more cells
    • toreplace ,repair&grow ,the cell must
      • copy their DNA
      • make extra organelles
      • divide the new DNA & new organelles between 2 new daughter cells
    • organelles that do this work
      • nucleus
      • centrioles

33. Centrioles

  • Function
    • help coordinate cell division
  • Structure
    • one pair in each cell
    • motor proteins

34. cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holdingorganelles in place mitochondria make ATP energyfrom sugar + O 2 nucleus protects DNA controls cell ribosomes builds proteins ER helps finish proteins makes membranes Golgi apparatus finishes, packages& ships proteins lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage centrioles cell division 35.

  • Cells have 3 main jobs
    • make energy
      • need food + O 2
      • cellular respiration & photosynthesis
      • need to remove wastes
    • make proteins
      • need instructions from DNA
      • need to chain together amino acids & finish & ship the protein
    • make more cells
      • need to copy DNA & divide it up

Cell Summary Our organelles do all those jobs ! 36. 2008-2009 Thats my cellular story Any Questions? 37. EXTRA SLIDES 2008-2009 38. Nucleus 39. Making proteins proteins transport vesicle Golgi apparatus vesicle smooth ER rough ER nuclear pore nucleus ribosome cell membraneprotein secreted cytoplasm 40. Lysosomeswhite blood cells attack & eat invading germs = digest them in lysosomes 41. When things go bad

  • Diseases of lysosomes are fatal
    • digestive enzyme not working in lysosome
    • picks up food, but cant digest it
      • lysosomes fill up withundigestedmaterial
    • grow larger & larger until disrupts cell & organ function
      • example: Tay-Sachs disease build up undigested fatin brain cells

42. But sometimes cells need to die

  • Lysosomes can be used to kill cells when they are supposed to be destroyed
    • some cells have to die for proper development in an organism
      • ex : tadpole tail gets re-absorbed when it turns into a frog
      • ex : getting rid of webbing between your fingers during fetal development
    • auto-destruct process
      • lysosomes break open and kill cell
      • cell suicide

43. Fetal development 15 weeks 6 weeks syndactyly 44. Chloroplasts

  • sun energyATP & sugars
  • photosynthesis

ATP +water+energyglucose+oxygen carbon dioxide 6CO 2 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 light energy + + + 45. Compare the equations Photosynthesis Respiration glucose+oxygencarbon+water+energy dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 6CO 2 6H 2 O ATP + + + +water+energyglucose+oxygen carbon dioxide 6CO 2 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 light energy + + + 46. The Great ENERGY Circle of Life sun ATP Photosynthesis Respiration O 2 glucose sugar CO 2 H 2 O + + plants animals & plants 47.

  • rough ER
    • ribosomes attached
    • works on proteins
  • smooth ER
    • makes membranes

Types of Endoplasmic Reticulum 48. Growth & Reproduction Well learn about this in a later unit!