What Is Linked Historical Data?

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Traditionally, historians have distinguished between primary and secondary sources in order to guarantee independence and reliability in their reconstruction of History. A particularly interesting characteristic of primary sources is that they need to be immutable, that is, to be curated and preserved from change over time. In this presentation we study how theories of persistence (through part of the DOLCE ontology) and metaproperties of 'healthy' ontologies (through the OntoClean metaproperties) might uncover interesting semantics for designing an ontological framework of historical sources on the Web.

Text of What Is Linked Historical Data?

  • 1. What Is LinkedHistorical Data?Albert Meroo-PeuelaRinke Hoekstra@albertmeronyoEKAW 2014, Linkping, Sweden 26/11/2014

2. Primary sources 3. Secondary sources 4. Historical Sources Independence Reliability Immutability 5. as RDF Graphs?1. An IRI, once minted, should never change its intendedreferent.2. Literals, by design, are constants and never changetheir value.3. A relationship that holds between two resources atone time may not hold at another time.4. RDF sources may change their state over time. That is,they may provide different RDF graphs at differenttimes.5. Some RDF sources may, however, be immutablesnapshots of another RDF source, archiving its state atsome point in time.From http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#change-over-time on RDF andchange over time 6. as RDF Graphs?1. An IRI, once minted, should never change its intendedreferent.2. Literals, by design, are constants and never changetheir value.3. A relationship that holds between two resources atone time may not hold at another time.4. RDF sources may change their state over time. That is,they may provide different RDF graphs at differenttimes.5. Some RDF sources may, however, be immutablesnapshots of another RDF source, archiving its state atsome point in time.From http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/#change-over-time on RDF andchange over time 7. Linked Historical Data: A Matter ofLife and DeathDichotomy: Alive Web Dead Web 8. An Ontological Framework ofHistorical Sources Problem: fundamental requirements fromhistorians on historical sources seem flawedby design in Linked Data (part-of) Solution: gain understanding on theessential characteristics of historical sources Gain understanding = explicitly state theirsemantics Persistence theories (e.g. inst. in DOLCE) OntoClean methodology 9. Persistence The continued or prolonged existence ofsomething Perdurantism: ordinary things havetemporal parts (i.e. persist by perduring) Endurantism: ordinary things are whollypresent whenever they exist (i.e. persistby enduring) Can genuinely change over time 10. Persistence of HistoricalSources Secondary sources are endurants Primary sources Same enduring properties Requirement: perdurance immutability (canchange but should not) Strong endurants (i.e. cant change overtime) 11. The Identity Problem: OntoCleanIf sources can change over time, how canwe guarantee that they are the sameentity?Study of the essential characteristics ofprimary and secondary sources OntoCleanmetaproperties 12. Metaproperties of HistoricalSources Rigidity (+R): a rigid property is aproperty that is essential to all itsinstances, i.e. x (x) (x) Non-rigid (-R), anti-rigid (~R) E.g. person(x), student(x) Primary sources = +R Secondary sources = ~R 13. Metaproperties of HistoricalSources Sortals (+I): classes all of whoseinstances are identified in the same way Identity criteria of historical sources asRDF graphs? Primary sources = +I Secondary sources carry no identitycriteria 14. Metaproperties of HistoricalSources Unity (+U): classes all of whoseindividuals are wholes under the samerelation (a whole does not createinstances of its class when subdivided). E.g. person(x), clay(x) Primary sources = ~U Secondary sources = +U 15. Metaproperties of HistoricalSources Dependence (+D): a property isdependent if each instance of it impliesthe existence of another entity. E.g. student(x) teacher(y) Primary sources = -D Secondary sources = +D 16. Violating Historical SourceMetaproperties Historical graphs published in arbitrary sourceson the Web The AAA rule: Anyone can say Anything about Anytopic Historical graph ?g with { ?s ?p ?o } changed by Unauthoritative statement on a primary source:{ ?s ?p ?o } with ?s = ?s Inbound links{ ?s ?p ?o } with ?o = ?s Reliability? Independence? 17. Trusted primary sourcesfrom digital archivesASKReliabilityTrue / false answer on theexistence of authoritative primarysource statements 18. Trusted in-archiveIRI dereferencing serviceseasy:anne-frank-diary ?IndependenceQualified copyPrimary sourceRDF graph IRIs of the primary source remain intact Copy has prov:wasDerivedFrom relations Resolution and dereferenceability mechanisms 19. Future Work Further theoretical study w/ historians Experimental evaluation w/ historians Metaproperties Existing historical ontologies (scarce) New ones Primary source resolution http://easy.dans.knaw.nl/ Use cases, historical concepts Dutch historical censuses http://cedar-project.nl/ Dutch book trade http://stcn.data2semantics.org/ 20. Thank youPrimary Source Secondary SourceDead (archived) graphs Living LODStrong endurant EndurantRigid (+R) Anti-rigid (~R)Sortal (+I) Non-sortal (-I)Anti-unity (~U) Unity (+U)Independent (-D) Dependent (+D)Dereferenceable only by archives Dereferenceable by anyoneComments, suggestions most welcome@albertmeronyohttps://www.cedar-project.nl/