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Effect of Discharged Industrial Effluents on Stomach Food Content Distribution of Fish Species Collected From Jakara Dam, Kano, Nigeria
Effect of Discharged Industrial Effluents on Stomach Food Content Distribution of Fish Species Collected From Jakara Dam, Kano, NigeriaInuwa, B.Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Technology, Kano State PolytechnicE- mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Presented at ICAPAS Conference Dynasty Hotel,Kuala Lumpur Malaysia, on 3rd and 4th Nov. 2014
1AbstractSurface water temperature fluctuate between 19.3oc-27oc.The Lake Ph was slightly acidic (6.3).DO ranged 3.7mg/l to l-5.1mg/l. Zinc, Lead, Chloride, TDS, conductivity and turbidity shows seasonal variations; with the lowest readings of 0.02mg/l, 0.02mg/l, 0.5mg/l, 43.3mg/l, 87.5s/cm and 19.8FAU respectively, while the highest readings of 0.08mg/l,0.05mg/l,1.4mg/l,58.6mg/l,117.3us/cm and 90FAU of Zinc, Lead, chloride, TDS, conductivity and turbidity were recorded respectively. The diet composition of four fish species belonging to two families; Sarotherodon gallilaeus, Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zilli and Clarias gariepinus were recorded. The fish species examined S. gallilaeus (32%), O. niloticus (32.9%), T .zilli (26.3%), and C. gariepinus (8.8%). 300 samples of S. gallilaeus examined, (71.3%) had food items in their stomach. The diet composition of Jakara lake fishes were plant materials, insects, insect larvae and smaller fishes.
IntroductionFood of fishes in a natural aquatic environment includes phytoplankton, zooplanktons, plant materials, insects, insects larvae, worms and smaller fishes. Aquatic ecosystems are vulnerable to environmental degradation by industrial waste effluent. Food availability of any aquatic community is an expression of quality of the water. The discharge of urban, industrial, and agricultural wastes has added quantum of various harmful chemicals considerably; leading to eutrophication and quality deterioration. There is the need for frequent stomach food composition assessment of fishes in Jakara dam due to frequent discharge of industrial and domestic wastes in to the reservoir that may affects food productivity, feeding behavior of fishes and alters the water quality.
The Study AreaJakara dam was impounded in 1976; the major tributaries of the reservoir are river Jakara and River Getsi which receives most of Kano cities domestic and industrial waste water. Jakara dam lies between longitude 80 311 to 80 451 E and latitude 20 0 131 to 120 101 N in Wasai , a village in Minjibir Local government area of Kano state about 45km from the state capital .
Analysis of Water Sample
Water samples were collected from four sampling points; JD1, JD2, JD3 and JD4 between 8 and 10 a.m. from January to December 2013 fortnightly. it was collected in cleaned and rinsed plastic containers of two-liter capacity. Ph and temperature were measured on site using pH meter and mercury bulb thermometer respectively. Conductivity was measured in the field by a conductivity meter. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and dissolved oxygen (DO) were analyzed using the alkaline-azide modification of Wrinklers titration method.
Fish Sampling and Stomach Content Analysis
Fish samples collected from each of the sampling stations using a number fishing gears; gill nets, cast nets, traps and hooks. Fish collected were identified, counted, guts removed and fixed in a mixture of 10% formaldehyde, glacial acetic acid and 50% ethanol in a ratio of 5:5:90. The fixed stomach was preserved in 5% formalin for 3-5 days. After preservation, the stomach contents were identified microspically and macrospically, sorted and enumerated. The number of fishes with each food items occurs was listed as a percentage of the total number of fish examined. The number of occurrence of all items is often summed and sealed down to a percentage basis, this give the percentage composition of the food.
DiscussionThe temperature tends to decrease progressively from September to January. The lake pH was slightly alkaline throughout the year except in the month of August when it turns to be acidic. The dissolved oxygen concentration within Jakara reservoir is satisfactory for most fish species. The concentration of lead and zinc shows less seasonal variation. This is an indication that the level of chemical pollution in Lake Jakara is throughout the year. Lowest value of transparency recorded in August was due to water turbulence, erosion and deposition of waste. High concentration of chloride is considered to be indicator of pollution due to organic wastes of animal or industrial origin. The stomach content analysis revealed that; insect parts, smaller fishes, insect larvae and plant materials are the main diet of Jakara lake fishes. S. gallilaeus, T. zilli and O. niloticus feeds predominantly on plants parts but few stomach of the cichlid contains insects, insect parts, and insect larvae.Conclusion and RecommendationGenerally poor feeding with scarce food items was observed among fishes of Jakara dam and only pollution tolerance fish species were encountered, it was believed; wastewater produces pollutants that are biologically and chemically harmful with high potential to cause disease and detrimental environmental effects. Industrial waste discharge should be discouraging through compatible policies and programmes for improvement in the industrial waste water treatment methods, it also suggests the need of consistent internationally recognized data driven strategy to assess the water quality of Jakara dam so as to save the life of Jakara lake fishes.