Immune response ppt

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<ul><li>1.8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 1 </li></ul> <p>2. The key is our ability to produce more than 108 distinct antibodies and more than 1012 T-cell receptors 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 2 3. Innate immunity Adaptive immunity 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 3 4. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 4 5. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 5 6. 1. Humoral (AMI) 2. Cellular (CMI) 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 6 7. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 7 8. Humoral Immune response(AMI) Entry Processing Secretion 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 8 9. Lag phase Log phase Plateau or steady state Phase of decline 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 9 10. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 10 11. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 11 Antigen Introduced I.V SPLEEN LIVER BM KIDNEY LUNGS Broken down by RE cells Introduced S.C Draining lymph nodes 12. Non- immune phase Phase of immune elimination 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 12 13. Immune response to an antigen is brought about by 3 type of cells APC T-cells B-cells 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 13 14. Capture Display Signal 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 14 15. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 15 16. The task of displaying cell-associated antigens for recognition by T cells is performed by specialized proteins that are encoded by genes in a locus called the MHC 2 TYPES Class I MHC Class II MHC8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 16 17. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 17 18. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 18 19. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 19 20. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 20 21. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 21 Helper T cells Cytotoxic T cells NK cells 22. Provides 2 defining characteristics of the adaptive immune response, 1.Specificity 2. Memory 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 22 23. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 23 24. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 24 25. Ranjiths 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 25 26. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 26 27. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 27 28. Genetic Age Nutrition Route of administration Size &amp; number of doses Multiple antigens Adjuvants Immunosuppressive drugs Effect of antibody 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 28 29. Specific immune response that do not involve antibodies. Delayed hypersensitivity Immunity in infections Transplantation immunity Immunological surveillance Autoimmune disease Scope of CMI 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 29 30. Antigenic stimulus Only T-cell dependant antigens lead to CMI T-cell bears specific receptor on its surface T cells recognize antigens only when presented with MHC molecules Helper T-cells Cytotoxic T-cells 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 30 31. Biologically active substances released by activated T lymphocytes were called LYMPHOKINES 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 31 Similar substance produced by Monocytes Macrophages 32. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 32 MIF MAF MCF Affecting macrophages BF/MF TGF BGF Affecting lymphocytes CF CSF Affecting granulocytes LT IFN TNF Affecting cultured cells SRF TF Others 33. IL-1 IL-2 IL-313 Interleukins GM-CSF G-CSF M-CSF Colony stimulating factors TNF- TNF- Tumour necrosis factors IFN- IFN- IFN- Interferons TGF- LIF Others 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 33 34. Peptide mediators or intracellular messengers which regulate immunological, inflammatory and reparative host responses They are potent hormone like substances Produced by lymphocytes, macrophages, platelets &amp; fibroblasts 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 34 35. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 35 36. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 36 37. Macrophages &amp; other cells IL-1 and IL-1 Proliferation &amp; differentiation of T, B and other cells Pyrogenic Induce acute phase proteins Bone marrow cell proliferation Interleukin-1 (LAF) 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 37 38. T-cells Powerful modulator of the immune response Promote growth and differentiation of T and B cells Cytotoxicity of T and NK cells Secretions of other lymphokines Interleukin-2[TCGF] 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 38 39. Interleukin-2[TCGF] 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 39 40. Other interleukins Interleukin-3 (multi-CSF) Growth factor for bone marrow stem cells Stimulates hematopoiesis Interleukin-4 (BCGF-I) Differentiation and proliferation of B and T cells Enhances the activity of cytotoxic T cells Activates mast cells Interleukin-5 (BCGF-II) Proliferation of activated B cells Induces maturation of eosinophils Interleukin-6 Induces immunoglobulin synthesis by activated B cells Induces formation of IL2 receptors on T cells 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 40 41. Stimulates the growth &amp; differentiation of pleuripotent stem cells in the bone marrow Responsible for adjusting the rate of production of blood cells Treating hematopoietic dysfunctions in infections &amp; malignancies Colony stimulating factors 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 41 42. Induce hemorrhagic necrosis in certain tumours TNF and TNF Cachectin is TNF Tumour necrosis factors 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 42 43. Originally identified as antiviral agents Interferons 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 43 44. 8/23/2013 3:53:19 AM 44 45. Kuby IMMUNOLOGY Fifth Edition 458/23/2013 </p>