1. How does the body protect itselffrom the invasion of pathogens? What are pathogens?
2. bacteria viruses Pathogens Germs fungi protists 3. International Pathogens 4. Pathogen - an infectious agent that can cause disease in its host 5. How does the body defend itself ? 6. DefenseOffense 7. How does the body prevent pathogens from entering?First Line of Defense Physical Barriers Chemical Barriers 8. Where can pathogens enter the body? 9. Physical Barriers 10. Chemical Barriers 11. What happens if the pathogens get through the first line of defense?Second Line Of DefenseInflammation 12. phagocytosis 13. phagocytosishttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fpOxgAU5fFQ 14. What happens if the first andsecond lines of defense are notenough to stop the pathogens? 15. The third (and last) line of defense:The Immune Response 16. Antigen -any substance that isrecognized as foreign to thebody and stimulates animmune response 17. Lymphatic system 18. Lymphatic System absorbs and transports digested fat from the small intestine transports lymph- a tissue- cleaning fluid transports white blood cellsvillus 19. A Lymph NodePaul Revere 20. How is a lymph node like a police station? 21. AntigenReceptorrPhagocyteHelper T cell 22. -Why? Phagocyte Helper T cellHelper T cell - Sounds the alarmWhat does a helper T-cell say? 23. Help!!!The helper T-cellactivates the rest of theimmune system 24. AntibodieY sYY YY YYY YY YYB CellsKiller T Cells 25. AntibodyB Cell Helper T cell 26. B cell AntibodiesMemory B Cell B CellWhat does a memory B cell say? 27. NEVERFORGET!!!Memory B Cell 28. What is Immunity?the ability of the body to resist a disease 29. The Immune Response 30. The Immune Response 31. Memory cells remain ready JICMacrophages clean up debris Army of B and T cells attack antigen & infected cells (B cells make antibodies etc)Activated B cells and T cells divide; formmore B and T cells and memory cells Helper T cells activate B cells and Killer T cellsHelper T cell activatedMacrophage displays antigen to Helper T cellMacrophages engulf, destroy antigenAntigen enters body 32. What is the first line of defense? Physical and chemical barriersWhat is the second line of defense? InflammationWhat is the third line of defense? The Immune Response 33. If you have the chicken pox once why dont you(usually) get it again? 34. NEVERFORGET!!!Memory B Cell 35. How is the secondary responsedifferent from the primary response? 36. How is the secondary responsedifferent from the primary response?Secondary immune response is stronger, faster, and longer than the primary response. 37. What is a vaccine?A weakened or dead pathogen putinto the body to stimulate theproduction of antibodies andmemory cells (immune response) 38. How is a vaccine like sparring? 39. How do vaccines protect us from disease? Vaccines activate the primary immune response (stimulate the body to produce antibodies and memory cells) 40. A boy became ill with the chicken pox andrecovered. A year later, he was exposedto the same disease again but did notbecome ill. Why didnt he develop chickenpox after the second exposure? Explainusing the following terms: primary immune response, secondaryimmune response, memory cells,antibodies, antigen 41. When the boy got infected the firsttime his primary immune responsewas activated and he made antibodiesto attack the antigen. His immunecells divided and left behind memorycells. When he got infected the secondtime his memory cells made thesecondary immune response fight thedisease faster and stronger, so hedidnt even get sick.. 42. What is this?Antibody 43. For each kindof pathogenthe bodymakesspecificantibodies(and cells ofthe immunesystem) thatrecognize it 44. Active ImmunityPassive ImmunityYou make You dont makethe antibodies the antibodiesExposure to - injectionantigen- breastfeeding - vaccine - infection 45. Active immunityPassive Immunity 46. The Immune Response1. Antigen enters body2. Macrophages engulf and destroy antigen or cell infected with antigen 47. The Immune Response3. Macrophage displaysantigen to helper T cells(activating them)4. Activated Helper T cellactivates B cells and KillerT cells 48. The Immune Response5. Activated B cells formmemory B cells and plasmacells (which make antibodies)Activated T cells formmemory T cells and killer Tcells 49. The Immune Response6. Antibodies bind to freeantigen and target them fordestruction by macrophages Killer T cells destroyinfected cells 50. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rpj0emEGShQHow viruses infect cellshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U2h0ECyMWhEHIV destroying Helper T cells 51. The Immune Response 52. The Immune Response