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Hiv(human immunodeficiency virus)

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  • 1. HIV(HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) As A Remedy BY Dada ademola . s

2. RETROVIRUS A retrovirus is an RNA virus that replicates in a host cell through the process of reverse transcription. First it uses its own reverse transcriptase enzyme to produce DNA from its RNA genome, reverse of the usual pattern, thus retro (backwards). This new DNA is then incorporated into the host's genome by an integrase enzyme. 3. The following genera are included here: Genus Alpharetrovirus; type species: Avian leukosis virus; others include Rous sarcoma virus Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; others include Feline leukemia virus Genus Deltaretrovirus; type species: Bovine leukemia virus; others include the cancer-causing Human T- lymphotropic virus Genus Epsilonretrovirus; type species: Walleye dermal sarcoma virus Genus Lentivirus; type species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1; others include Simian, Feline immunodeficiency viruses Genus Spumavirus; type species: Simian foamy virus 4. According to Baltimores classification they are: Group VI viruses All members of Group VI use virally encoded reverse transcriptase, an RNA- dependent DNA polymerase, to produce DNA from the initial virion RNA genome. This DNA is often integrated into the host genome, as in the case of retroviruses and pseudoviruses, where it is replicated and transcribed by the host. Group VI includes: Family Metaviridae Family Pseudoviridae Family Retroviridae - Retroviruses, e.g. HIV Group VII viruses Both families in Group VII have DNA genomes contained within the invading virus particles. The DNA genome is transcribed into both mRNA, for use as a transcript in protein synthesis, and pre-genomic RNA, for use as the template during genome replication. Virally encoded reverse transcriptase uses the pre- genomic RNA as a template for the creation of genomic DNA. Group VII includes: Family Hepadnaviridae - e.g. Hepatitis B virus Family Caulimoviridae - e.g. Cauliflower mosaic virus 5. NOW HIV. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (slowly replicating retrovirus) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life- threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. 6. HIV 7. STRUCTURE OF HIV 8. BRIEF HISTORY.. AIDS was first clinically observed in 1981 in the United States. The initial cases were a cluster of injection drug users and gay men with no known cause of impaired immunity who showed symptoms of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), a rare opportunistic infection that was known to occur in people with very compromised immune systems. Soon thereafter, additional gay men developed a previously rare skin cancer called Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 are believed to have originated in non-human primates in West-central Africa and to have transferred to humans (a process known as zoonosis) in the early 20th century. HIV-1 appears to have originated in southern Cameroon through the evolution of SIV(cpz), a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that infects wild chimpanzees (HIV-1 descends from the SIVcpz endemic in the chimpanzee subspecies Pan troglodytes troglodytes) 9. Left to right: the African green monkey source of SIV, the sooty mangabey source of HIV-2 and the chimpanzee source of HIV-1 10. ABOUT VACCINE. Washington -The hunt for an HIV vaccine has gobbled up $8bn in the past decade, and the failure of the most recent efficacy trial has delivered yet another setback to 26 years of efforts. With the next attempts expected to be years away, top researchers now say there is a "void" or a "gap" in current clinical trial efforts to test whether a vaccine may be safe and effective in people. 11. BRIEF FACTS.. How quickly do people infected with HIV develop AIDS? The length of time can vary widely between individuals. The majority of people infected with HIV, if not treated, develop signs of HIV-related illness within 5-10 years, but the time between infection with HIV and being diagnosed with AIDS can be 1015 years, sometimes longer. Antiretroviral therapy can slow down disease progression to AIDS by decreasing the infected persons viral load. 12. Primary HIV infection - may be asymptomatic or experienced as Acute retroviral syndrome. Clinical stage 1 asymptomatic or generalized swelling of the lymph nodes Clinical stage 2 - includes minor weight loss, minor mucocutaneous manifestations, and recurrent upper respiratory tract infections Clinical stage 3 - includes unexplained chronic diarrhoea, unexplained persistent fever, oral candidiasis or leukoplakia, severe bacterial infections, pulmonary tuberculosis, and acute necrotizing inflammation in the mouth. Some persons with clinical stage 3 have AIDS. Clinical stage 4 - includes 22 opportunistic infections or cancers related to HIV. All persons with clinical stage 4 have AIDS. Most of these conditions are opportunistic infections that can be treated easily in healthy people. 13. Oral Candidiasis AND Leukoplakia 14. HIV AS A REMEDY.. The HIV virus may be about to become a new weapon in the fight against cancer as initial tests have shown it can drastically minimize and even help cure the most common form of leukemia. A research team, led by Dr. Carl June working out of the Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania, has been experimenting with using a harmless version of the HIV virus combined with genetically modified white blood cells as a new way to fight cancer. The cells are taken from patients and modified with new genes that make them target cancer cells, but just as importantly, they can also multiply once injected allowing them to scale up as a small army inside the body. 15. HOW? . 1. Doctors run the patients blood through a machine that removes T-cells, but returns the rest of the blood to the patient. T-cells are virus and cancer fighting white blood cells. 2. A modified form of the HIV virus is used to infect the T- cells and insert genes that cause it to recognize and attack a particular cancer, then multiply and survive in the patients for months. N.B : The modified HIV virus carries what Carl June, one of the doctors involved, called a "Rube Gol dber g-l i ke sol ut i on, in an interview with the New York Times. The virus carries DNA from humans, mice and cows, a virus that infects woodchucks, and one that infects cows. 16. The modified T-cells then carry chimeric antigen receptors, proteins which allow them to recognize and kill multiple cancer cells. 3. Chemotherapy kills any remaining T-cells in the patient. The doctors don't want un-modified T-cells impeding the new ones. 4. The modified T-cells are returned to the patient. Within the patient the newly re-programmed T-cells proliferate. 5. Over the next few weeks the patient develops a temperature, chills, shakes, low blood pressure, and other flu-like symptoms. The symptoms are caused by chemicals called cytokines produced by the T-cells. The flu-like symptoms also mean the cancer is on the run. After the ordeal, doctors estimated that two pounds of cancer cells had died off in one patient, William Ludwig. 17. The results have surprised everyone. These modified cells have acted like serial killers, multiplying and killing all of the cancer cells in two patients, while reducing them by 70% in a third. The equivalent of five pounds of cancer cells has disappeared from each patient. More good news stems from the fact that the modified cells remain in the body and have been seen to reactivate and kill new cancer cells as long as 12 months after they were first injected. 18. ABOUT A GIRL CURED USING THIS EXPERIMET.. In April this year, Emily Whitehead's family had almost given up hope. The brave six-year-old had been fighting leukaemia for two years, only to relapse for a second time during intensive chemotherapy treatment in February. Doctors had exhausted all the traditional treatments as Emily could not remain in remission for long enough to attempt a bone marrow transplant. So her desperate parents, Kari and Tom, started looking at more radical options. N.B: Video on you-tube

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