Coco processong

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  • PROCESSING AND VALUE ADDITION OF COCOA

    P C VengaiahScientist (Food Science &Technology)

    Horticltural Research StationPandirimamidiDr.Y.S.R Horticultural University

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  • COCOA (Theobroma cocoa) A small tree native to America tropicsNow grown in all tropical regions of the worldChief cocoa producing countries Ghana, Nigeria, Ivory Coast and BrazilKerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh in India

  • The pods are 10-18 cm in diameter, having thick leathery rinds containing 20-50 beans inside in rows

    The seeds are embedded in white or pinkish pulp

    Seeds are the principal source of cocoa or cocoa powder highly prized as a nutritious beverage, and chocolate used as food all the world over

  • Thank You

  • FRESH POD WITH PULP

  • 1.bin

  • WHY COCOA IS PROCESSED ? Raw cocoa is bitter, astringent and devoid of chocolate flavour The original taste, flavour and colour of the chocolate are due to the interplay of about 600 different chemicals developed during processing Biochemical processes for development of chocolate flavour start during fermentation and continue during drying, roasting and conching.

  • QUALITY OF INDIAN COCOA CURRENT STATUS`At present, more thrust is given on value addition, so farm level processing is relevant.Knowledge of farmers on processing techniques is inadequateThe area expansion on cocoa is very extensive and India will become an exporter of cocoa in the next decade.Adoption of improper processing technology can lead to branding of Indian cocoa as poor quality in international market

  • Thank YouCocoa pods when mature, are yellow in some varieties and red in others

  • 1. Post harvest processing A. Primary processingB. Secondery processing

    2. Value added productsA. Cocoa mass/liquerB. Cocoa butterC. Cocoa PowderD. Chocolate E. By product utilisation

  • PRIMARY PROCESSING PRESENT STATUS Above 90% of cocoa is sold as pods or as wet beans Quality of beans processed by growers is poor due to Wrong choice of the method of fermentation Indiscriminate mixing of diseased, germinated and caked beans Adulteration practices Improper turning and lack of insulation during fermentation Under fermentation and consequent acidity problems Too rapid drying in artificial dryers Contamination by smoke and mould

  • FACTORS INFLUENCING QUALITY OF COCOA Pre harvest factorsPost harvest handling methods Environmental conditions during growthVariety GrownAgrotechniques adoptedFermentationDryingStorgae

  • HARVESTOnly ripe pods are harvested

  • Primary ProcessingMatured pods are removed from the tree by machetes or by a similar knife attached to a long pole for the higher branches

    After a day or two, the pods are split open with the machete and the beans and pulp removed by hand or by hand implements

    Beans are subjected to natural fermentation to assist in removing the adhering pulp and to prepare the beans for drying

    Fermentation generally takes for 5-10 days

  • At the end of fermentation, the pulp breaks down and there is a change in color of the seeds from pale yellow or violet to brown

    The endogenous enzymes, activated by the heat of fermentation bring about changes in proteins and polyphenols in the Kernel and there is also a reduction in the astringency of the kernel

    The beans are then dried to 6-8% moisture level in sun or in artificial dryers

    The bean is then ready for export or further processing to manufacture cocoa products

  • PRIMARY PROCESSING SOME TIPS FOR BETTER QUALITYHarvest ripe podsPre fermentation storage of 3-5 days is essentialUse only good beans Choose method depending upon the quantity Allow smooth drainage of sweatingsInsulate the fermenting mass properlyTurn on alternate daysAvoid too small quantitiesAvoid over or under fermentationTake out for drying after judging the end pointAs far as possible sun dry fermented cocoa If artificial dryers are used, adjust temperature to less than 600C, stir at regular intervals and adjust rate of air flow so that drying is complete in 3-5 days.

  • PRE FERMENTATION STORAGE (3-5 DAYS) Ensures correct nib acidification Enhances pre-fermentation activity inside beans Facilitates rapid rise in temperature Imparts stronger chocolate flavour

  • POD BREAKING & COLLECTION OF WET BEANS Break pods without causing damage to beans Collect good beans Discard diseased, germinated and caked beans

    2.psd

  • BREAKING OF RIPED PODS

  • Heap method Heaps of reasonable quantity (50-500kg) Slanting floor to ensure drainage Use banana leaves for heaping & covering Insulate adequately Turn on alternate days Retain for 6-7 days

    FERMENTATION - TRADITIONAL METHODS

  • STARTING A FERMENTATION HEAP

  • HEAP READY TO FERMENT

  • FERMENTATION IS FINISHED

  • COCOA BEANS IN BASKETS READY FOR FERMENT

  • Box methodTW boxes of 1.2 x 0.95x 0.75m)Small scale

  • Tray methodTW Tray of 90x 60x 13 cm to hold 45 kg wet beansLarge scale Small scale

    9.psd

  • Basket method

  • On drying platforms Gunny bags

  • Pod maturityPod storageQuantity of beansQuantity of pulpType of cocoaDurationTurningSeasonal effectsPod diseases

    FACTORS INFLUENCING FERMENTATION

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  • Bean colour changes to brown, becomes plump and filled with a reddish brown exudate

    2. Testa becomes loose and detached from the cotyledons3. Longitudinal halves of cotyledons show bleached appearance in the centre with a brownish ring at the periphery4. When 50 % of beans show these signs, the lot can be taken out for dryingEnd point of fermentation

    10.psd

    11.psd

    12.psd

    13.psd

  • DRYING Sun dryingArtificial dryingMoisture content reduced from 55% to 6-7%Sun drying is the best as it ensures lower acidity, astringency, bitterness and better chocolate flavourThe beans are to be skin dry in first 24 hours3-4 days drying is desirableTemperature of the dryer should not exceed 600c Avoid contamination by smoke

  • Large scale Sun Drying

  • Small scale sun drying

  • Mechanical drying

  • STORAGERemove flat beans, foreign matter and broken beans Beans are packed in gunny bags lined with polytheneHumidity of store not to exceed 80 %

    4. Store to be made clean and insect free5. Avoid nearness to smoke, fumes, bad odour etc.

  • FARM LEVEL SECONDARY PROCESSINGAlkalizationReduces acidityImparts attractive colour to cocoa powderImproves dispersability of cocoa powder

    Soak beans in 1.0% Sodium bicarbonate solution for 3 hours

    16.psd

  • ROASTING ( 20-30 MINUTES)Large scaleRoasterWinnowerSmall scaleUruli roaster

    17.psd

  • Roasting of Cocoa BeanRoasting develops the characteristics flavor

    A large number of compounds have been identified in coca and chocolatethat form during roasting

    Roasting also causes changes in the chemical structure of polyphenols, producing less astringent compounds

  • In choosing a roast, attention is given to the ultimate product being made, its use, and the kind of beans being used

    Roasting temperatures depend upon the type of roaster used and the location of the measuring instrument

    Roasters traditionally were of batch design but modern manufacturing practice calls more and more for the continuous roaster

  • While roasting, the beans are processed through corrugated rollers to break their shells and removed by winnowing

    The cotyledons are known as Nibs

    Usually there is some blending of the nibs from different varieties of cocoa before they are processed further

  • REMOVAL OF SHELLNibShell

    18.psd

  • Large scaleSmall scaleGRINDING NIBS TO A FINE PASTELarge scaleSmall scale

  • Grinding of Pressed CocoaAs cocoa loaves drop from the presses, they are passed through breakers to form a kibbled cake of less than 1 size

    The higher fat cocoa break down to a smaller size than do the lower fat cocoas because of the presence of extra cocoa butter

    The cocoa then requires further grinding or pulverizing to be used commercially

    Traditionally pulverized cocoa has been passed over screens to obtain the proper size

  • Grinding of NibsThe nibs are ground using stone mills or other suitable mills to a fine paste or liquor

    The heat produced during grinding causes cocoa fat to melt and the melted fat carries with it, in suspension, finely ground particles of cocoa

  • This is known as Cocoa mass, Chocolate liquor or Bitter chocolate

    This mass solidifies at about 30C

    Cocoa mass is very rich (50-55%) in fat and can not be used directly for the preparation of any beverage

  • Pressing of NibsFilter-pressing to separate out a major part of fat (cocoa butter)

    The amount of fat left in the pressed cake can be varied by the conditions of pressing

    The pressed cake is used for producing cocoa powder

    The fat content of cocoa used for beverage is fixed by law

  • According to ISI specifications, cocoa used for beverage should contain 20 % cocoa fat

    Medium fat cocoa, containing between 10 20 % fat, and low fat cocoa, containing less than 10 % fat are made

    Flavoring substances like vanilla and cinnamon are generally incorporated into cocoa powder

  • Large scaleSmall scaleEXTRACTION OF COCOA BUTTER

  • Separates cocoa butter from cocoa powderPresses are large, hydraulic, expensive, and contain steel filter screens The first part of the press cycle separates the butter from the solids