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AP Biology Archaebacteria & Bacteria Classification Old 5 Kingdom system Monera , Protists, Plants, Fungi, Animals New 3 Domain system reflects a greater understanding of evolution & molecular evidence Prokaryote: Bacteria Prokaryote: Archaebacteria Eukaryotes Protists Plants Fungi Animals Prokaryote Eukaryote

Prokaryotes

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prokaryotes

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  • 1. AP BiologyArchaebacteria&BacteriaClassification Old 5 Kingdom system Monera, Protists, Plants,Fungi, Animals New 3 Domain system reflects a greaterunderstanding of evolution& molecular evidence Prokaryote: Bacteria Prokaryote: Archaebacteria Eukaryotes Protists Plants Fungi AnimalsProkaryoteEukaryote

2. AP BiologyKingdomProtistKingdomFungiKingdomPlantKingdomAnimalKingdomArchaebacteriaKingdomBacteria 3. ProkaryotesDomain BacteriaDomain ArchaebacteriaDomainBacteriaDomainArchaeaDomainEukaryaAP Biology 2007-2008Common ancestor 4. Bacteria live EVERYWHERE! Bacteria live in all ecosystems on plants & animals in plants & animals in the soil in depths of the oceans in extreme cold in extreme hot in extreme salt on the living on the deadAP BiologyMicrobes alwaysfind a way tomake a living! 5. Bacterial diversityrods and spheres and spirals Oh My!AP Biology 6. Prokaryote Structure Unicellular bacilli, cocci, spirilli Size 1/10 size of eukaryote cellAP Biology 1 micron (1um) Internal structure no internal compartments no membrane-bound organelles only ribosomes circular chromosome, naked DNA not wrapped around proteinsprokaryotecelleukaryote cell 7. Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Chromosomedouble helixAP BiologyProkaryoteEukaryote 8. Variations in Cell Interiorinternal membranesfor photosynthesislike a chloroplast(thylakoids)AP Biologymitochondriaaerobic bacteriuminternal membranesfor respirationlike a mitochondrion(cristae)cyanobacterium(photosythetic) bacteriumchloroplast 9. Prokaryote Cell Wall StructureAP Biologypeptide sidechainscell wallpeptidoglycanplasma membraneproteinGram-positive bacteriapeptidoglycan = polysaccharides + amino acid chainslipopolysaccharides = lipids + polysaccharidesGram-negative bacteriaoutermembranepeptidoglycanplasmamembraneouter membrane oflipopolysaccharidescell wallThatsimportant foryour doctorto know! 10. Prokaryotic metabolism How do bacteria acquire their energy &nutrients? photoautotrophsAP Biology photosynthetic bacteria chemoautotrophs oxidize inorganic compounds nitrogen, sulfur, hydrogen heterotrophs live on plant & animal matter decomposers & pathogens 11. Genetic variation in bacteria Mutations bacteria can reproduce every 20 minutesAP Biology binary fission error rate in copying DNA 1 in every 200 bacteria has a mutation you have billions of E. coli in your gut! lots of mutation potential! Genetic recombination bacteria swap genes plasmids small supplementalcircles of DNA conjugation direct transfer of DNA conjugation 12. Bacteria as pathogens Disease-causing microbesAP Biology plant diseases wilts, fruit rot, blights animal diseases tooth decay, ulcers anthrax, botulism plague, leprosy, flesh-eating disease STDs: gonorrhea, chlamydia typhoid, cholera TB, pneumonia lyme disease 13. Bacteria as beneficial (& necessary) Life on Earth is dependent on bacteria decomposersAP Biology recycling of nutrients from dead to living nitrogen fixation only organisms that can fix N from atmosphere needed for synthesis of proteins & nucleic acids plant root nodules help in digestion (E. coli) digest cellulose for herbivores cellulase enzyme produce vitamins K & B12 for humans produce foods & medicines from yogurt to insulin 14. AP Biology 15. Got anyQuestions??Ask da Boss!AP Biology 2007-2008