Visual Queries:The foundation of visual thinkingColin WareData Visualization Research LabUniversity of New HampshireDesigning with cyborgs in mind
Change BlindnessSimons and Levin
Vogel Woodman and LuckCapacity of visual working memory 3 simple shapes
Sequential comparison task
Central Problem: How do we perceivethe world in all its rich detail?Only detail in foveaOnly a small amount of Information in visual working memory.
SolutionThe world is its own memory OReganTask-related active visionWhat you see is what you needTreish et al. (2003)
Seeing is a process that helps us solve problems
Visualizations are much better databases than what we have in our heads
Architecture for visual thinking
Stage 2 Pattern perception
Visual queries are executed by finding patterns in displaysAttentional DemandsTune the pattern finding processes
Top down meets bottom up
Eye movementsTwo or three a secondPreserves Context
We seek patterns
Why visualize?Human Memory: 100 meg (Landauer)= 108 (not unique)World information: 1 exabyte/year= 1018 (unique)= 108 bytes new information per person per year
Conclusion: we are cognitive cyborgs our memories are not in our heads.
Why do we care about perception?It is about what makes information display effective.Can there be a science of visualization?Evaluation
VisualizationsMapsRouteFlowThematic (geology, vegetation, etc)Multi-dimensional DiscreteMulti-dimensional continuousGraphs Social NetworksFlowNarrative explaining dataAnimations, assembly diagramsOther thinking toolsCalendars, Planners, search engines, News pages, Design tools
Understanding surface shape
Linked WindowsTide AwareShow GeoNavGeoZui4D
Flow visualizationHow do we optimally display vector fields?
Length - 420 ft16,000 TonsBeam 82 ft30,000 HPDraft 29 ftDiesel Elec AC/AC
Fuel 1,165,000 galTop Speed 17ktsIce Breaking 4.5 ft @ 3 kts
CAVEHead tracking stereoResolution problemsLight scattering problems Vergence focus problem for near objectOcclusion problems for near objects
Immersion VRHMD + head trackingData glove
Capacity of visual working memory (Vogal, Woodman, Luck, 2001)Task change detectionCan see 3.3 objectsEach object can be complex1 second
Just enough, just in time
Attention and Patterns
*John HorganHerb Simon*Low Level: Basic feature analys determines what is seen with minimal effortMid Level: Pattern finding The demands of attention meets automatic processing High Level: Task related visual queries are formed objects/ patterns are pulled into working memory and tested against the query- Need to have the right mappings for queries to be easily satisfied.Attention is focused to execute the query.
Final element is the cost of search.*The middle ground Visual queries are exectuted by finding patterns in displaysExecuted on the outputs of low level processing