The Development and Techniques of Editing

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<p>Editing</p> <p>EditingRules,Concepts &amp; Key TerminologySome information has been adapted from BFI.org.uk</p> <p>What is editing?The post-production process</p> <p>Editing is how material (visual and audio) is combined. The basic edit, the cut derives its name from the fact that film used to be physically cut with scissors, and spliced together again, with the unwanted footage discarded (or left on the cutting room floor). PurposeBy combining shots into sequences we are able to present a narrative, an idea or a visual art-form. Not all media texts have coherent narratives and it is by editing in certain ways that we can create meaning through edits.</p> <p>For example, The Kuleshov Effect (Lev Kuleshov, 1910s-1920s)Conventions and Techniques</p> <p>Ivan Mozzhukhin was the subject of Kuleshovs experimentsConventions and Techniques</p> <p>Conventions and Techniques</p> <p>How we edit these daysIn this college, we use non-linear editing and we edit video that has been uploaded from either DV tapes or SD cards. In the film industry, much work is still recorded onto film stock, (although this is changing rapidly). </p> <p>Creating Meaning Through EditingThe historical development of editing for meaningIn the early days of filmmaking, in the early 1900s, there was no fixed way of editing for meaning. </p> <p>A system gradually developed principally through Hollywood filmmaking which was designed to overcome the potential for every edit to confuse the audience and to allow them to follow the action. These days, moving-image storytelling relies largely on this system. </p> <p>A central aspect of this process came to be known as the continuity system, which is composed of a series of loose rules about how shots should be combined.The continuity system is composed of:180 degree ruleEstablishing shots and re-establishing shotsEyeline-match cuttingMatch-on-action cuttingShot-reverse shotAdditionally, a number of other conventions developed to help establish the diegetic presentation of time and space, and the role of characters, within a narrative:Close-ups, OTS and POVs, and reaction shots to create main protagonists and audience identification with themFades and dissolves for time-shifts of various kindsCross-cutting/parallel editing to create relationships between different settings</p> <p>These days, many of these rules are broken for effect Frame Rate </p> <p>Film consists of a series still frames which, if played at the correct speed, create the illusion of moving images. The standard frame rate used in film is 24 (frames per second) although UK TV (PAL) is 25 and US TV (NTSC) is 29.97 FPS. </p> <p>Frame rate varies depending on the media platform. For example, animation works in 2s meaning that each frame is held for two frames so only 12 different frames are shown every second. In order use slow-motion footage of a high quality, the frame rate should be as high as possible. Consumer cameras are now available that shoot at 600fps. Professional cameras now exist that shoot at 1,000,000fps and at the college, the HD cameras you use can film at 50fps.</p> <p>In-camera editing</p> <p>At this college we do not need to use in-camera editing as we have the resources to edit in post-production using Premiere Pro. </p> <p>In-camera editing involves creating videos without uploading footage and requires you to shoot the footage in the order of the final sequence. Its a good place to start if you have a limited budget. Your introduction for your video will be edited in-camera.</p> <p>Video Editing Technology 1Video Editing Technology 2Linear editingConsidered by most to be obsolete, linear editing involves editing tape-to-tape, without the need for editing software. Until the 1990s it was the only method of editing and was just called video editing. The finished videotape is called the master. This is an example of how things happened in the analogue days before digital convergence. </p> <p>Non-linear editingNow seen as the norm, non-linear editing is the process of combining uploaded footage whilst being able to instantly access individual shots, or even frames, without having to trawl through reels of footage. It has been made possible by digital convergence of previously separate technologies. </p> <p>Following the action</p> <p>Before filming it is important to consider the desired end result, hence the pre-production stage.</p> <p>If you were to shoot a sequence in which a fight takes place between two guys, you could film a single long take of the two (from a position that allows you to capture all of the action) and then put that onto your timeline, or you could shoot the fight with a master shot (the single long take) and also numerous angles and shot distances (taking care not to violate the 180 degree rule), and then edit the footage together so that each shot appears to follow the last. If you have done it properly, this should result in a seamless flow of shots which follow the action without the audience ever getting confused.Shooting footage to make editing easier 113The seamless flow of effective editing</p> <p>Quantum of Solace (Forster, 2008)14Multiple points of view</p> <p>1st person: Taken from the subjects perspective used a lot in horror films to create tension as a 1st person view can place viewers within the scene. The 1st person shot is also commonly known as a POV shot.Blair Witch Project (Myrick; Sanchez, 1999)Cloverfield (Reeves, 2008)</p> <p>DevelopmentMultiple points of view</p> <p>3rd person: By shooting in 3rd person the audience can be given omniscience allowing them to see more detail within the scene/narrative. Shooting in 3rd person means that the camera is directed at a subject or an object rather than taking its place. </p> <p>DevelopmentMultiple points of view</p> <p>Changing the point of view can result in various outcomes. For example, POV shots are used in horror films to show the perspective of either the victim/potential victim or the villain. This puts the audience in the scene, in the position of the character. Whereas, 3rd person shots show the audience a scene.</p> <p>DevelopmentShot variation</p> <p>We all know by now how boring a sequence can be unless we utilise different shot types and angles (although you should always be aware that there is always a time and place for long takes and repetitious camerawork).</p> <p>By moving the camera you can achieve a variety of outcomes. For example, an extreme close-up shows immense detail, whereas an establishing shot sets the scene. Be sure to consider genre and tone when deliberating your shot types and always ask why am I framing this shot at this lengthand angle?</p> <p>DevelopmentManipulation of diegetic time and space</p> <p>Through editing (if you have the right footage) you can take the audience on a journey; you can take them to far off destinations, even fictional ones and you can also present them with events which, in reality, would last years but in the cinema last around 90 minutes. </p> <p>As editors, you have the ability to manipulate diegetic time by using the right shots and edits (transitions).DevelopmentManipulation of diegetic time</p> <p>In Kill Bill Vol. 1 &amp; 2 (Tarantino, 2003 &amp; 2004), The Bride travels the world to hunt and assassinate five individuals. In the films, which total 4 hours, The Bride is able to travel to the various locations in that short time frame because sequences that do not progress the narrative, such as check-in at the airport, are not included in the finished sequence.</p> <p>Shooting footage to make editing easier 2Manipulating diegetic space and timeYou may be filming a sequence in which a character travels from one location to another but you will not want to show the whole journey. Through editing it is possible to shorten that journey but also change from one location to another. Similarly you may want to show an exterior of a building before showing someone in an office inside it</p> <p>21PurposeStorytelling</p> <p>The prominent purpose of editing footage is to tell a story. Whether to follow the conventional CHN or to create an artistic statement, editing is the process of creating an audio-visual message.</p> <p>In order to create a successful media product, the creator needs to engage the viewer and this can be achieved by implementing various editing techniques.</p> <p>PurposeStorytelling</p> <p>When progressing the narrative, it is up to the creator to develop the drama in order to engage the viewer. As viewers, we have expectations of narrative structures and formats so we think we know what is coming. Think back to Todorovs narrative theory and how media texts build towards a climax. This can be achieved by using more, shorter length shots and tightening the framing to show tension and emotion.</p> <p>If drama does not develop then the viewer will become disengaged and bored. You may have witnessed this when you hear a film or TV show described as slow.Editing and GenreThe editing of a particular media product will depend on the genre of the piece. Depending on its relationship to the genre, the media text will be edited in a genre specific or conventional way. </p> <p>For example, when watching an action film we expect to see lots of cuts in order to match the pace and to create excitement. Whereas, if you watch a television (period) drama, you will find that there are far fewer cuts and transitions to make it seem more realistic.</p> <p>Shooting footage to make editing easier 3Creating pace involves using cuts and other transitions to slow down or speed up a sequence. Long takes and lack of edits creates a slow pace, whereas rapid editing generates excitement.</p> <p>For example, imagine a scene in which a child is out with their parents; the pace may be slow and the takes will be long. However, if the child then wanders off and becomes lost, the shots will become shorter in length, we will get more close-ups and there will be far more cuts to show uneasiness and confusion. The speed of editing connotes how frantic the mother would be.Conventions and TechniquesEditing involves implementing transitions (cut, dissolve, fade, wipe), filters and effects as well as more complex processes based on principles of continuity editing and montage. </p> <p>Continuity editing, is the process of ensuring that a film looks seamless and 'real'. Conventions and Techniques180 rule</p> <p>By following this rule the filmmaker ensures that each character occupies a consistent area of the frame, helping the audience to understand the layout of the scene. It also aids in limiting the probability of continuity errors.</p> <p>Conventions and Techniques</p> <p>These shots are shown in the order that they appear in the video. See how the character suddenly changes the direction in which he is walking.Conventions and TechniquesMatch cut on action</p> <p>This is a fundamental element of the continuity system. An action begins in one shot and ends in the next, helping the audience over the edit smoothly. </p> <p>What is missing from the following?</p> <p>?</p> <p>Conventions and TechniquesPoint of view shot (POV)</p> <p>A shot taken with the camera placed approximately where the character's eyes would be, showing what the character would see; usually cut in before or after a shot of the character looking. Horror films and thrillers often use POV shots to suggest a menacing and unseen presence in the scene.</p> <p>POV is one of the means by which audiences are encouraged to identify with characters.Conventions and TechniquesEye line match</p> <p>A cut between two shots where the first shot shows a person looking out of the frame and the second shows what they are looking at (often, but not always, in a POV). If the person looks left, the following shot should imply that the person being looked at is off-screen right. Height of subjects and objects should always be addressed.As the characters become closer, the eyeline match (that is the connection between the looker and the looked at) is stressed with matching CUs.</p> <p>Conventions and TechniquesEyeline match</p> <p>1.</p> <p>2.</p> <p>Conventions and TechniquesShot-reverse-shot</p> <p>If filming a conversation between two characters, you do not need to have both shown in the frame. Instead you can apply shot-reverse-shot; filming onecharacter talking in one direction followed by another character facing the opposite way. Be sure to follow the 180 rule when doing this.</p> <p>Conventions and TechniquesParallel editing/cross-cuttingThis involves cutting between two scenes, usually to imply that they are occurring at the same time, and that they are related or will converge (although sometimes they may not converge and the relationship may be metaphorical rather than actual). </p> <p>This often happens in heist movies such as Oceans 11 (Soderberg, 2001) when the plan is carried out as we follow all of the characters attempting their separate missions.</p> <p>Conventions and TechniquesMotivated editsA motivated edit is an edit caused by something which happens in the preceding shot. For example, in horror films, a soon-to-be victim is seen screaming and then a cut exposes the cause of the reaction. Eyeline-match cuts are motivated by a character looking out of frame, so we can see what they are looking at. Like the match-on-action, the motivated edit allows for seamless continuity and is highly unobtrusive.</p> <p>Conventions and TechniquesJump-cutting</p> <p>A jump cut is a transition between two shots which appears to jump due to the way the shots are framed in relation to each other. Jump cuts are used to create disorientation and difficulties for the audience as they appear jarring and sometimes unintentional. </p> <p>Jump cutting can be avoided by moving the camera to another angle or reframing the subsequent shot so that it appears vastly different.</p> <p>Conventions and TechniquesCutawayA cutaway involves cutting to a separate image in an otherwise continuous flow of action. Cutaways can be used to avoid accidental jump cuts caused by poor planning in the shoot, or to disguise edits in long documentary interviews. </p> <p>Cutting to a happy image such as a butterfly or smiling child, implies a safe and positive tone, whereas, cutting to a danger of death sign implies something bad is about to happen.Conventions and TechniquesMontage editing on the other hand, is an expressive use of juxtaposing shots*, often unrelated, with music or sound that may or not be working with the images (parallel) or counterpointing it (contrapuntal). Montage editing is much more common in music video or advertisement production. </p> <p>*Juxtaposition: the positioning of two images, characters, objects etc., in order to compare and contrast them, or establish a relationship between them.Conventions and TechniquesTransitions</p> <p>A transition is the term for the join between two different pieces of footage. </p> <p>The most widely used transition is a cut and its purpose is to go from one section of footage to the next. Other transitions contain meaning and are used to send a message to the audience.Conventions and TechniquesTransitions</p> <p>The following transition types also have sub-categoriesCut- slicing footage so that one image ends and anoth...</p>