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  • 1. 6 thGrade ScienceChapter 14Interactions of Life Notes Section 14.1 & 14.2 Zambias South Luangwa National Park


  • What is a a biosphere?
  • A biosphere is the portion of Earth that supports life.
  • What is an ecosystem?
  • An ecosystem is made up of the living organisms and nonliving parts of an area.

Key Questions 1 Orangutan rescue- Malaysia 3.

  • The part of Earth that supports life is thebiosphere(BI uh sfihr).
  • The biosphere includes the top portion of Earths crust, all the waters that cover Earths surface, and the atmosphere that surrounds Earth.

The Biosphere 4.

  • The biosphere is made up of different environments that are home to different kinds of organisms.
  • For example, desert environments receive little rain.

The Biosphere

  • Cactus plants, coyotes, and lizards are included in the life of the desert.


  • Anecosystemconsists of all the organisms living in an area, as well as the nonliving parts of that environment.


  • Ecologyis the study of interactions that occur among organisms and their environments.
  • Ecologists are scientists who study these interactions.

6. 7.

  • What is a population?
  • A population is made up of all members of a species that live in the same ecosystem.
  • What is a community and a habitat?
  • A community consistsof all the populations in an ecosystem. A habitat is where an organism lives.

Key Questions 2 Orangutan rescue- Malaysia 8.

  • Apopulationis made up of all organisms of the same species that live in an area at the same time.


  • For example, all the bison in a prairie ecosystem are one population.


  • This figure shows how organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems are related.

Populations 10.

  • Each organism in an ecosystem needs a place to live.
  • The place in which an organism lives is called itshabitat .
  • An organisms habitat provides the kinds of food and shelter, the temperature, and the amount of moisture the organism needs to survive.

Habitats 11.

  • The salamanders habitat is the forest floor, beneath fallen leaves and twigs.


  • Salamanders avoid sunlight and seek damp, dark places.


  • What is competition?
  • Competition is when more than one organism needs the same resource. Competition limits population size.
  • What is population density?
  • Population density is the number of individuals per unit area.

Key Questions 3 The Sombrero Galaxy Orangutan rescue- Malaysia 13.

  • Woodpeckers must compete with each other for nesting spots.
  • Competition occurs when two or more organisms seek the same resource at the same time.

Food and Space 14. Human Population Density in the United States 15. Fighting for dominance males face each other, rear up on their hind legs, and hurl themselves at each other in charges of some 20 miles (32 kilometers) an hour. The resounding clash of horns can be heard echoing through the mountains sometimes for many hoursuntil one ram submits and walks away. The animal's thick, bony skull usually prevents serious injury. 16.

  • What are limiting factors?
  • Limiting factors are resources that restrict population size.
  • What is an ecosystems carrying capacity?
  • An ecosystems carrying capacity is the largest population it can support.

Key Questions 4 Orangutan rescue- Malaysia 17.

  • Competition also takes place among different species.

Growth Limits

  • For example, after a Gila wood pecker has abandoned its nest, owls, flycatchers, snakes, andlizards might compete for the shelter of the empty hole.


  • This map shows human population density.

Population Size 19.

  • Ecologists can have problems when measuring wildlife populations.

Measuring Populations

  • One of the methods they use is called trap-mark-release.


  • Carrying capacityis the largest number of individuals of one species that an ecosystem can support over time.

Carrying Capacity

  • If a population begins to exceed the environments carrying capacity, some individuals will not have enough resources.They could die or be forced to move elsewhere.


  • The highest rate of reproduction under ideal conditions is a populations biotic potential.

Biotic Potential

  • The larger the number of offspring that are produced by parent organisms, the higher the biotic potential of the species will be.


  • Describe three ways in which ecologists can estimate the size of a sample.
  • Explain how birthrates and death rates influence the size of a population.
  • Explain how carrying capacity influences the number of organisms in an ecosystem.
  • Why are food and water the limiting factors that usually have the greatest effect on population size?

Questions Section 14.1 and 14.2 Orangutan rescue- Malaysia 23. Zambias South Luangwa National Park

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