Mimo ofdm wireless communications with matlab

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2. MIMO-OFDMWIRELESSCOMMUNICATIONSWITH MATLABYong Soo ChoChung-Ang University, Republic of KoreaJaekwon KimYonsei University, Republic of KoreaWon Young YangChung-Ang University, Republic of KoreaChung G. KangKorea University, Republic of Korea 3. Copyright 2010John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, 2 Clementi Loop, # 02-01,Singapore 129809Visit our Home Page on www.wiley.comAll Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in anyform or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as expresslypermitted by law, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment ofthe appropriate photocopy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center. Requests for permission should be addressed to thePublisher, John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809, tel: 65-64632400,fax: 65-64646912, email: enquiry@wiley.com.Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and productnames used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.The Publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. All trademarks referred to in the text of thispublication are the property of their respective owners.MATLAB is a trademark of The MathWorks, Inc. and is used with permission. The MathWorks does not warrant theaccuracy of the text or exercises in this book. This books use or discussion of MATLAB software or related products does notconstitute endorsement or sponsorship by The MathWorks of a particular pedagogical approach or particular use of theMATLAB software.This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered.It is sold on the understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional adviceor other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought.Other Wiley Editorial OfcesJohn Wiley & Sons, Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UKJohn Wiley & Sons Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USAJossey-Bass, 989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741, USAWiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Boschstrasse 12, D-69469 Weinheim, GermanyJohn Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd, 42 McDougall Street, Milton, Queensland 4064, AustraliaJohn Wiley & Sons Canada Ltd, 5353 Dundas Street West, Suite 400, Toronto, ONT, M9B 6H8, CanadaWiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be availablein electronic books.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataMIMO-OFDM wireless communications with MATLAB / Yong Soo Cho ... [et al.]. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-470-82561-7 (cloth)1. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. 2. MIMO systems. 3. MATLAB. I. Cho, Yong Soo. TK5103.484.M56 2010 621.384dc222010013156Print ISBN: 978-0-470-82561-7ePDF ISBN: 978-0-470-82562-4oBook ISBN: 978-0-470-82563-1Typeset in 10/12pt Times by Thomson Digital, Noida, India.This book is printed on acid-free paper responsibly manufactured from sustainable forestry in which at least two trees areplanted for each one used for paper production. 4. To our parents and families who love and support usandto our studentswho enriched our knowledge 5. ContentsPreface xiiiLimits of Liability and Disclaimer of Warranty of Software xv1 The Wireless Channel: Propagation and Fading11.1 Large-Scale Fading41.1.1 General Path Loss Model 41.1.2 Okumura/Hata Model81.1.3 IEEE 802.16d Model 101.2 Small-Scale Fading 151.2.1 Parameters for Small-Scale Fading151.2.2 Time-Dispersive vs. Frequency-Dispersive Fading161.2.3 Statistical Characterization and Generation of Fading Channel 192 SISO Channel Models252.1 Indoor Channel Models252.1.1 General Indoor Channel Models262.1.2 IEEE 802.11 Channel Model282.1.3 Saleh-Valenzuela (S-V) Channel Model 302.1.4 UWB Channel Model352.2 Outdoor Channel Models 402.2.1 FWGN Model 412.2.2 Jakes Model502.2.3 Ray-Based Channel Model542.2.4 Frequency-Selective Fading Channel Model 612.2.5 SUI Channel Model653 MIMO Channel Models713.1 Statistical MIMO Model 713.1.1 Spatial Correlation733.1.2 PAS Model763.2 I-METRA MIMO Channel Model 843.2.1 Statistical Model of Correlated MIMO Fading Channel843.2.2 Generation of Correlated MIMO Channel Coefcients88 6. viiiContents 3.2.3I-METRA MIMO Channel Model 90 3.2.43GPP MIMO Channel Model94 3.3 SCM MIMO Channel Model97 3.3.1SCM Link-Level Channel Parameters98 3.3.2SCM Link-Level Channel Modeling 102 3.3.3Spatial Correlation of Ray-Based Channel Model1054Introduction to OFDM 111 4.1 Single-Carrier vs. Multi-Carrier Transmission1114.1.1 Single-Carrier Transmission 1114.1.2 Multi-Carrier Transmission1154.1.3 Single-Carrier vs. Multi-Carrier Transmission 120 4.2 Basic Principle of OFDM1214.2.1 OFDM Modulation and Demodulation1214.2.2 OFDM Guard Interval 1264.2.3 OFDM Guard Band 1324.2.4 BER of OFDM Scheme1364.2.5 Water-Filling Algorithm for Frequency-Domain Link Adaptation139 4.3 Coded OFDM 142 4.4 OFDMA: Multiple Access Extensions of OFDM1434.4.1 Resource Allocation Subchannel Allocation Types 1454.4.2 Resource Allocation Subchannelization 146 4.5 Duplexing1505Synchronization for OFDM 153 5.1 Effect of STO153 5.2 Effect of CFO1565.2.1 Effect of Integer Carrier Frequency Offset (IFO)1595.2.2 Effect of Fractional Carrier Frequency Offset (FFO) 160 5.3 Estimation Techniques for STO1625.3.1 Time-Domain Estimation Techniques for STO 1625.3.2 Frequency-Domain Estimation Techniques for STO168 5.4 Estimation Techniques for CFO1705.4.1 Time-Domain Estimation Techniques for CFO 1705.4.2 Frequency-Domain Estimation Techniques for CFO173 5.5 Effect of Sampling Clock Offset1775.5.1 Effect of Phase Offset in Sampling Clocks 1775.5.2 Effect of Frequency Offset in Sampling Clocks 178 5.6 Compensation for Sampling Clock Offset 178 5.7 Synchronization in Cellular Systems1805.7.1 Downlink Synchronization1805.7.2 Uplink Synchronization1836Channel Estimation 187 6.1 Pilot Structure187 6.1.1 Block Type 187 7. Contents ix 6.1.2 Comb Type188 6.1.3 Lattice Type 1896.2Training Symbol-Based Channel Estimation 190 6.2.1 LS Channel Estimation190 6.2.2 MMSE Channel Estimation1916.3DFT-Based Channel Estimation 1956.4Decision-Directed Channel Estimation 1996.5Advanced Channel Estimation Techniques 199 6.5.1 Channel Estimation Using a Superimposed Signal 199 6.5.2 Channel Estimation in Fast Time-Varying Channels 201 6.5.3 EM Algorithm-Based Channel Estimation204 6.5.4 Blind Channel Estimation 2067 PAPR Reduction2097.1 Introduction to PAPR2097.1.1 Denition of PAPR 2107.1.2 Distribution of OFDM Signal 2167.1.3 PAPR and Oversampling 2187.1.4 Clipping and SQNR 2227.2 PAPR Reduction Techniques 2247.2.1 Clipping and Filtering2247.2.2 PAPR Reduction Code 2317.2.3 Selective Mapping 2337.2.4 Partial Transmit Sequence 2347.2.5 Tone Reservation2387.2.6 Tone Injection2397.2.7 DFT Spreading 2418 Inter-Cell Interference Mitigation Techniques 2518.1 Inter-Cell Interference Coordination Technique2518.1.1 Fractional Frequency Reuse2518.1.2 Soft Frequency Reuse2548.1.3 Flexible Fractional Frequency Reuse 2558.1.4 Dynamic Channel Allocation2568.2 Inter-Cell Interference Randomization Technique 2578.2.1 Cell-Specic Scrambling 2578.2.2 Cell-Specic Interleaving 2588.2.3 Frequency-Hopping OFDMA 2588.2.4 Random Subcarrier Allocation2608.3 Inter-Cell Interference Cancellation Technique2608.3.1 Interference Rejection Combining Technique2608.3.2 IDMA Multiuser Detection2629 MIMO: Channel Capacity2639.1 Useful Matrix Theory2639.2 Deterministic MIMO Channel Capacity 265 8. x Contents9.2.1 Channel Capacity when CSI is Knownto the Transmitter Side 2669.2.2 Channel Capacity when CSI is Not Available at theTransmitter Side2709.2.3 Channel Capacity of SIMO and MISO Channels2719.3 Channel Capacity of Random MIMO Channels27210 Antenna Diversity and Space-Time Coding Techniques 281 10.1 Antenna Diversity 28110.1.1 Receive Diversity28310.1.2 Transmit Diversity 287 10.2 Space-Time Coding (STC): Overview 28710.2.1 System Model 28710.2.2 Pairwise Error Probability 28910.2.3 Space-Time Code Design 292 10.3 Space-Time Block Code (STBC)29410.3.1 Alamouti Space-Time Code 29410.3.2 Generalization of Space-Time Block Coding29810.3.3 Decoding for Space-Time Block Codes30210.3.4 Space-Time Trellis Code30711 Signal Detection for Spatially Multiplexed MIMO Systems319 11.1 Linear Signal Detection 31911.1.1 ZF Signal Detection32011.1.2 MMSE Signal Detection321 11.2 OSIC Signal Detection 322 11.3 ML Signal Detection 327 11.4 Sphere Decoding Method329 11.5 QRM-MLD Method339 11.6 Lattice Reduction-Aided Detection 34411.6.1 Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovasz (LLL) Algorithm 34511.6.2 Application of Lattice Reduction 349 11.7 Soft Decision for MIMO Systems35211.7.1 Log-Likelihood-Ratio (LLR) for SISO Systems35311.7.2 LLR for Linear Detector-Based MIMO System35811.7.3 LLR for MIMO System with a Candidate Vector Set36111.7.4 LLR for MIMO System Using a LimitedCandidate Vector Set364 Appendix 11.A Derivation of Equation (11.23) 37012 Exploiting Channel State Information at the Transmitter Side 373 12.1 Channel Estimation on the Transmitter Side37312.1.1 Using Channel Reciprocity37412.1.2 CSI Feedback 374 12.2 Precoded OSTBC375 9. Contents xi 12.3 Precoded Spatial-Multiplexing System381 12.4 Antenna Selection Techniques38312.4.1 Optimum Antenna Selection Technique38412.4.2 Complexity-Reduced Antenna Selection 38612.4.3 Antenna Selection for OSTBC39013 Multi-User MIMO395 13.1 Mathematical Model for Multi-User MIMO System 396 13.2 Channel Capacity of Multi-User MIMO System39713.2.1 Capacity of MAC39813.2.2 Capacity of BC 399 13.3 Transmission Methods for Broadcast C