How to develop effective concordance materials using online corpus

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Chun, Sooin (2014, September). How to develop effective concordance materials using online corpus. Paper presented at the meeting of KAMALL Annual Conference 2014, Seoul, Korea.

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  • Sooin Chun Dankook University

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Benefits1. Improving linguistics knowledge (vocabulary & grammar: lexico-grammartical knowledge)

    2. Enhancing cognitive skills(Inductive thinking skills)

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Benefits1. Improving linguistics knowledge (vocabulary & grammar: lexicogrammartical knowledge)

    2. Enhancing cognitive skills(Inductive thinking skills)

    For developing language competence of young learners in low proficiency level (Chun, 2011, 2013, 2014)

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Benefits- Achieving 6 levels of learning goals by Marzano (2001)

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    SystemLevelFunctionSelf6Examining motivation/efficiency/importance of knowledgeMeta-cognitive5Specifying learning goals/monitoring accuracy & clarityCognitive4Knowledge utilization (decision-making/problem-solving/investigation)3Analysis (matching/classifying/error analysis/generalizing/specifying)2Comprehension (synthesis/representation)1Retrieval (recall/execution)

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Difficulties

    Text difficulty in corpus (Chamber, 2007)

    Expertise in corpora & tools (Bernardini, 2002; Gavioli, 2005; Chun, 2012)

    3. Time consuming in inductive learning (Farr, 2008)

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Deductive DDL- Helping beginners to conduct DDL easy using paper-based concordance materials (Boulton, 2008; Cresswell, 2007; Johns & King, 1990)

    - Related research (Boulton, 2009a, 2009b, 2010, 2012)

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Which corpus?

    What components in?

    What learning goal?

    How should they be made?

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Types of corpus

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Physical conditionsContents (texts) Installation Texts- PC - Online- General corpus - Specialized corpus Size Timing- Large corpus - Small/pedagogical corpus- Dynamic corpus - Static corpus

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Characteristics of a corpus:

    - Representativeness: Does the collected texts represent a language, a target population? (Biber, 1993)

    - Balance : Does the corpus include enough samples in a certain of text categories? (McNery, Xiao & Tono, 2006)

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Building a corpus:

    - Sampling: What texts are sampled for representativeness and balance of corpus? (McNery, Xiao & Tono, 2006)

    Collecting representative samples from a population (McNery, Xiao & Tono, 2006)

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • How should concordance materials be made?

    - As a micro-corpus for inductive DDL- To possess the representativeness & balance in a general corpus

    For learning general language rules:

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Examples in the previous research (Chun, 2013, 2014)

    1) Example 1 (Chun, 2013) 2) Example 2 (Chun, 2014a)

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • 1) Example 1 (Chun, 2013)

    70 high school students 68 students described 1 type of rules in meaning; 2 did both form and meaning, biased rules based on the red framed text samples.Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Needs for muliti-demensional aspects for collecting concordance samples1. Diversity in meanings (diverse types of text: genres)2. Diversity in forms (POS)3. Frequency Diverse types of word knowledge

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • 2) Example 2 (Chun, 2014)

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference * Diverse frequency in the blue framed 1 Diverse forms in the blue framed 2 Diverse meanings in the blue framed 3123

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Methods:1. Choosing tool (Chun, 2014b): - Online corpus: COCA (general corpus / dynamic corpus / large corpus)

    Words And Phrase Frequency List Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • http://www.wordandphrase.info/frequencyList.asp Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Methods:2. Target words: win & beat Table 1. Search results form COCA Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Target wordsPOSTotalSpokenNovelMagazineNewspapersJournalswinVerb12044727427878123850525917798Noun10937131151418056855452beatVerb41625789789639738134931534Noun1381411048219178516871019

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Visualizing the results on Win & Beat Fig. 1 3 Dimensional observation of win & beatSooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Methods:3. Developed materials:

    (Chun, 2014a) Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Results: - Students reports: More findings in conclusion

    1) More descriptions on forms 2) More descriptions on meaningSooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Results: 1. More descriptions on forms1) beaten 2) despite winning .....3) win won. beat .

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Results:2. More descriptions on meaning6) win , , , beat . . 7) win beat , win , , beat . , (A-3), (A-6)8) (A-4) . B-8 B-5 . , (2) .9) win

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Conclusion:

    - Concordance samples affect their findings & inductive results

    Needs for appropriate materials, helping learners to learn general language rulesSooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Suggestions:

    Essential factors for developing a concordancematerials:1) Understanding the target corpus2) Sampling concordances to build a micro-corpus Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Suggestions:

    Essential factors for developing a concordancematerials:

    If necessary, 1) Developing a material to learn general rules first (using a micro-corpus)2) Developing a following material to learn particular rules as a next step (using a micro-specialized corpus)Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Summary: Procedures for developing the materials *Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Biber, D. (1993). Representativeness in corpus design. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 8(4), 243-257.Boulton, A. (2008). Looking for empirical evidence of data-driven learning at lower levels. In B. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk (Ed.), Corpus linguistics, computer tools, and applications: State of the art (pp. 581-598). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Boulton, A. (2009a). Testing the limits of data-driven learning: Language proficiency and training. ReCALL, 21(1), 37-51.Boulton, A. (2009b). Data-driven learning: Reasonable fears and rational reassurance. Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 35(1), 1-28.Boulton, A. (2010). Data-driven learning: taking the computer out of the equation. Language Learning, 60(3). 534-572.Bouton, A. (2012). Language awareness and medium-term benefits of corpus consultation. In A. Gimeno Sanz (Ed.), New-trends in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Working together (pp. 39-46). Madrid: Macmillan ELT.Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Chamber, A. (2007). Popularising corpus consultation by language learners and teachers. In E. Hidalgo, L. Quereda, & J. Santana (Eds.), Corpora in the foreign language classroom (pp. 3-16). Amsterdam: Rodopi.Chun, S. (2013). High school students inductive vocabulary learning by using concordances: a study on the use of inductive thinking skills. English Language & Literature Teaching, 19(4), 353-374.Chun, S. (2014a). How to Develop Effective Paper-based Concordance Materials for DDL. Studies in English Education, 19(1), 127-156.Chun, S. (2014b). Exploring the usefulness of Frequency List for developing concordance materials. The journal of foreign studies, 28, 111-138.Cresswell, A. (2007). Getting to know connectors: Evaluating datadriven learning in a writing skills course. In E. Hidalgo, L.Quereda, & J. Santana (Eds.), Corpora in the foreign language classroom (pp. 267-287). Amsterdam: Rodopi.Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Farr, F. (2008). Evaluating the use of corpus-based instruction in a language teacher education context: Perspectives from the users. Language Awareness, 17(1), 25-43.McEnery, T., Xiao, R., & Tono, Y. (2006). Corpus-based language studies. N.Y: Routledge.Marzano, R. J. (2001). A new taxonomy of educational objectives. A. L. cost (Ed.), Developing minds: a resource book for teaching thinking (pp. 181-188). Alexandria , VA: Association for supervision and curriculum development.Sinclair, J. (2004). Developing linguistic corpora: a guide to guide to good practice corpus and textBasic principles. Retrieved from http://ota.ahds.ac.uk/documents/creating/dlc/chapter1.htmSooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Q & ASooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

  • Thank you.Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference *

    Sooin Chun, 2014 KAMALL International Conference

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