Houston, ASTD: What Research Tells Us about Games, Gamification and Learning

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his decidedly unacademic presentation provides a broad scientific overview of what we know from research about the effectiveness today’s technology for changing learner behaviors through games. We will discuss the use of 3D avatars to change learner behaviors; we will consider how playing a video game changes a person’s behavior and how storytelling helps learners memorize facts. We’ll answer questions like: Are two avatars better in an e-learning module than one? Does the appearance of an avatar impact the person when they’ve finished working with the avatar? Do serious games have to be entertaining to be educational? This engaging, exciting session shows you how to use the existing research literature in your own design and delivery of online learning. You will be provided with tips and techniques for matching research findings to your own e-learning design. We’ll move the concepts from research-to-practice. Discover how research-based practices really fit in with today's fast-paced need for quick, effective instruction online instruction.

Text of Houston, ASTD: What Research Tells Us about Games, Gamification and Learning

  • 1. What Research Tells us About Games,Gamification and LearningBy Karl M. KappBloomsburg UniversityApril 25, 2012 Twitter:@kkapp

2. Google Kapp Noteswww.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotesBlog Book Tour Learning Circuits Blog 2012 New Book: The Gamification of Learning and InstructionSeptember 2011 Training Quarterly ArticleImproving Training: Thinking Like a Game DeveloperJuly 2011 T&D ArticleMatching the Right Instruction to the Right Content 3. Based on the Book. 4. Agenda1 2How do you apply game-based strategiesWhat does research say aboutto the presentation of learning content?games and game elements forlearning? 34 Ten tips for creating e-learningWhat are 3 principles for adding games and simulations to changeserious games to learning curriculums? behavior. 5. 10,000 hrs ofGame play13 hours of consolegames a 87% of 8- to 17- week year olds play video games Digital divisions. Report by the Pew /Internet: Pew Internet & American Life. at home. US Department of Commerce 6. Almost 43% of the gamers are female and 26% of thosefemales are over18. Females play 5 hours a week of console games. They make up the majority of PC gamers at 63%.Digital divisions. Report by the Pew /Internet: Pew Internet & American Life.US Department of Commerce 7. What Research SaysaboutGames for Learning 8. Percentages of Impact Type of % Higher Knowledge/ Retention Declarative 11% Procedural14% Retention9%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectivenessof computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies 9. Percentages of ImpactIt wasnt the game, it was level Typegame.of activity in the of % Higher Knowledge/ Retention Declarative 11% In other words, the engagement Procedural of the learner in the game leads 14% to learning. Retention 9%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectivenessof computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies 10. Do simulation/games have to be entertaining to be educational? 11. NOSitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectivenessof computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology . 12. Simulation/games build more confidence foron the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction.20% higher confidence levels. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology . 13. A math facts game deployed on a handled computer encouraged learners to complete greater number of problems at an increased level of difficulty. Learners playing the handheld game completednearly 3 times the number of problems in 19 days and voluntarily increased the level of difficulty.Lee, J., Luchini, K., Michael, B., Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (2004). More than just fun and games:Assessing the value of educational video games in the classroom. Paper presented at the CHI 04Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vienna, Austria. 14. ..its the instructional methods andnot the delivery system thatprovides the active ingredients forlearningin a game/simulation.--Jeanne Farrington 15. Engagement Learning Game Game PedagogyAdapted from Aldrich, C. Learning by Doing. Pfeiffer, page 80 16. Instructional games should be embeddedin instructional programs that includedebriefing and feedback.Engagement Instructional support to help learners understand Educational the game increases how to use instructionalSimulation effectiveness of the gamingGame experience.PedagogyHays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review anddiscussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005-004).Aldrich, C. Learning by Doing. Pfeiffer, page 80 17. Recommendations1) Provide a context for the learning.2) Dont focus on entertainment.3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities to increase engagement and interactivity to increase learning. 18. Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action,promote learning, and solve problems. Gamification 19. Four Elements ofGames that Aid Learning1. Avatars2. Stories & Challenges3. Levels4. Feedback 20. Weve Always Wanted Characters Avatars 21. Why be a Characterat All?Research indicates that human social models influence behavior,beliefs and attitudes.Bandura, A. 1986 Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall. 22. Avatar as Teacher Research indicates that learners perceive, interactsocially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (avatars) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited.Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. PhilosophicalTransactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 35593565 23. An experience as an avatar can change a persons real life perceptions. In a study conducted by Yee and Bailenson (2006), it was found that negative stereotyping of the elderly was significantly reduced when participants were placed in avatars of old people compared with those participants placed in avatars of young people.Yee, N. & Bailenson, J.N. (2006). Walk A Mile in Digital Shoes: The Impact of Embodied Perspective-Taking on TheReduction of Negative Stereotyping in Immersive Virtual Environments.. Proceedings of PRESENCE 2006: The 9th AnnualInternational Workshop on Presence. August 24 26, Cleveland, Ohio, USA 24. Who is more likely to run 24 hours later?A. Person who watched an avatar not like them runningB. Person who watch an avatar like them runningC. Person watching an avatar like them loitering 25. Within 24 hours of watching an avatar likethemselves run, learners were more likely torun than watching an avatar not like them or watching an avatar like them loitering .Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113. 26. If learners watch an avatar that looks like them exercising & losing weight, they will subsequently exercise more in the real world as compared to a controlgroup.Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113. 27. Are two avatars better than one?MotivatorMentorExpert 28. MotivatorYes, two avatars are betterthan one.MentorBaylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles through pedagogicalagents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 15(1), 95-115.Expert 29. http://www.codebaby.com/showcase/elearning-showcase/ 30. First Person View 31. Third Person ViewSeeing oneself as acting in a movie or a play is notmerely fantasy or indulgence; it is fundamental tohow people work out who it is they are, and maybecome. Ben Casey Carey, B. (2007) This is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. And Sestir, M. & Green, M. C. (2010). You are who you watch: Identification and transportation effects on temporary self-concept. Social Influence, 5, 272-288 and research by Libby, L.K., Shaeffer, E.M., Eibach, R.P., & Slemmer, J.A. ( 2007) Picture yourself at the polls: Visual perspective in mental imagery affects self-perception and behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 18: 199-203. 32. Recommendations Use avatars to model desired behavior. Allow/encourage learners to craft avatars that look likethemselves for maximum learning impact. Use two avatars in e-learning instead of one. One toprovide knowledge, and one to provide motivation. Create the third-person perspective to allow learners toobserve desired behavior. 33. Stories & Challenges 34. Provide a challengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technologyfor educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available:http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventingbetter schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass 35. Re-design the Instruction to Start with a Challenge 36. Researchers have found that theYep, People tend to remember facts human brain has a natural affinity formore accurately if they encounter narrative construction.them in a story rather than in a list.And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. MelanieGreen http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html 37. Story Elements1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Tension 4. Resolution5. Conclusion 38. NikePlus Stats for Karl 39. Challenge and Consolidation Good games offer players a setof challenging problems and then let them solve these problemsuntil they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions.Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiringthem to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learnsomething new, and integrate this new learning into their oldmastery.James Paul Gee,University of Wisconsin-Madison 40. Recommendations Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories. Start the learning process by providing a challenge tothe learner. Provide a progression from simple to more difficulttasks. Use stories that are related to the context of thedesired learning outcome. 41. Levels 42. Scaffolding: Process of controllingthe task elements that initially arebeyond the learners capacity. Guided Practice. Step-by-stepinstructions and then fading ofinstruction 43. Once that task is accomplished, the learner is then led to accomplishanother goal which builds upon theprevious. 44. Level One: Talking with the receptionist. 45. Level Two: Talking wi