History and theory part1

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ARCHITECTURE FROM TIME TO TIME

Introduction to Architecture

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What is theory?What is history?1.

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what is the difference?Theoryistoria (grk) :learning with asking chronological/causal questions

aristoteles : systematic analysis about some natural phenomenon

1 : the analysis of a set of facts in their relation to one another

2 : abstract thought

3 : the general or abstract principles of a body of fact, a science, or an art

Source: Meriam Webster Dictionary OnlineHistory

What is the aim of learning history and theory ?2.

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what has happenedwhat is happeningwhat should happenSCIENTIFICALLYKNOWING

Man learn about his(her)-self for the better process of being and to be..

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Studying architectural history relates to our need to understand the present. for it is only by studying the past that we can hope to understand how we have arrived at today.

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as a Closed Text as an Open Text ? orHistory always taking sides, depend on the writers / theoriticianHistory is always free have to be re-interpreteHow to look at history ???

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The search for shelter: The primitive hut

Man wants to make himself a dwelling that protects but does not bury himLet us look at man in his primitive state without any aid or guidance other than his natural instincts. He is in need of a place to rest.Abbe Laugiers Essay sur larchitecture, 1755

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The discovery of creating shelter

Drawing from Viollet le Ducs Dictionnaire raisonne de larchitecture, 1856

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ArchitectureOne of the early architectural developments was the use of the post-and-lintel method

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Milestone of Architectural History

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Modern Architect.. as a Milestone

After ModernBefore Moderncut off from historyback to historydepend on historycut off from history

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500 AD1000 AD1500 AD2000 ADBelanda (1800-1942)

Sriwijaya (abad ke-7 ke-13)Mataram (1500-1700)

Majapahit (1293-1500)

Portugis (1512-1800)

VOC (1600 -1800)

Jepang (1942-1945)

Tarumanegara (358-669)Small Tribal Groups (10.000 BC- 200 AD)Tradingslink India China (200-600)

Independence (1945-)

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ARCHITECTURE

Autobiography of the human race

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Pre Historic architecture

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Neolithic ArchitectureAlso known as Stone-Age architecture contains some of the oldest known structures made by mankind.Distinguishable by Paleolithic and Mesolithic making and use of stone tools.Neolithic cultures have been shown to have existed in southwest Asia as early as 8000 B.C. to 6000 B.C.The peoples of the Americas and the Pacific region remained at the Neolithic level up until the time of European contact.

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Neolithic ArchitectureNeolithic Architects were great builders who used mainly mud-brick to construct houses and villages.Houses were plastered and painted with ancient scenes of humans and animals.Many of the more famous Neolithic structures were remarkably made by enormous stones.

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Egyptian ArchitectureDue to lack of wood most Egyptian architecture was made with mud-brick and stone.Minerals included sandstone, limestone, and granite, which were generally used for tombs and temples.Most ancient Egyptian towns have been lost because they were situated in the cultivated and flooded area of the Nile Valley.

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2500 B.C.1500 B.C.

PyramidsPERMANENCE and IMMORTALITY

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Egyptian ArchitectureTemples and tombs have survived: Built on ground unaffected by the Nile floodConstructed of stone.Egyptian architecture is based mainly on its religious monuments such as Pyramids.All monumental buildings are post and lintel constructions, with flat roofs constructed of huge stone blocks supported by the external walls and the closely spaced columns.

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800 AD

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Parthenon, Greece, Post & Lintel

Function as temple for the Gods, Sculptural Form, Rectangular

Architecturethe art or science of building; specifically : the art or practice of designing and building structures and especially habitable onesOr as Vitruvius said: Architecture was a building that incorporated..Utilitas Firmitas VenustasCommodity Firmness - Delight

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The architect

Architekton master builder

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ArchitectureAncient Greek Orders (styles): composed of a shaft, capital, and base.

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Entablature: the top of an order; includes the architrave, frieze, and cornice.

http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/architecture/entablature.htmlGreek Architecture

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Other key developments include the arch,

http://www.arlington.k12.va.us/schools/drew/a&a/theromans.htmRoman Architecture

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And the vault

PantheonAnd the dome

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The arch was a purely Roman invention. An arch is often made up of small stones called voussoir and a large central stone called a keystone.

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A series of columns is called a colonnade.A series of arches is called an arcade.

The arch, vault, and dome are variations of the same concept that allowed for greater height and more space inside a building.

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Gladiator, Rome

Roman ArchitectureRomans built more kinds of structures than any earlier civilization.In addition to houses, temples, and palaces, Romans constructed aqueducts, public baths, shops, theaters, and outdoor arenas.

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Gothic ArchitectureMainly flourished in western Europe from the 1100s to 1400s.New systems of construction allowed for architects to design churches with thinner walls and lighter piers.Piers extended several stories high and into the roof area making individual columns like ribs on an open umbrella.Ribbed vaults are most distinguishable characteristic of Gothic architecture.

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1140-1500

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Gothic ArchitectureOther styles included pointed arches, stained-glass windows, flying buttresses.Flying buttresses were brick or stone arched supports built along outside walls.Emphasizes vertically and a skeletal stone structure.Pointed arch was introduced for both visual and structural reasons. Channels weight onto the bearing piers or columns at a steep angle.Gothic cathedrals could be highly decorated with statues and paintings.

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500 AD1000 AD1500 AD2000 AD

Belanda (1800-1942)

Sriwijaya (abad ke-7 ke-13)Mataram (1500-1700)

Majapahit (1293-1500)

Portugis (1512-1800)

VOC (1600 -1800)

Jepang (1942-1945)

Tarumanegara (358-669)Small Tribal Groups (10.000 BC- 200 AD)Tradingslink India China (200-600)

Independence (1945-)

500 AD1000 AD1500 AD2000 AD

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Leon Battista Alberti1443 De re aedificatoria (English: On the Art of Building) a concise version of sociology of architecture and tells architect how buildings should be built, not how they were built.

De Re Aedificatoria remained the classic treatise on architecture from the 16th until the 18th century.

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Renaissance ArchitectureBeginning between the early 15th and the early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe.The Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of partsOrderly arrangement of arches, niches replaced the more complex proportional view of medieval buildings.Renaissance buildings have a square, symmetrical, planned appearance.

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Renaissance ArchitectureFacades (front of building) are symmetrical around their vertical axis.The columns and windows show a progression towards the center.Domestic buildings are often surmounted by a cornice.Windows may be paired and set within a semi-circular arch.Roofs are fitted with flat or coffered ceilings. They are not left open as in Medieval architecture. They are frequently painted or decorated.

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St. Peters

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Pazzi Chapel

Golden Section

Leonardo da Vinci

Brunelleschi, Santa Maria Del Fiore, FlorenceRENAISSANCE (1420-1600)

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Next episode

Louis XIV

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RationalEffectiveEfficientStandardMass Production

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to be continued