History civil war part1

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  • 1. THE CIVIL WAR Part 1 Lessons 1-3 Lessons 1-3 Lessons 1-3 Lessons 1-3 Pages 224-236

2. Railroad Lines, 1860 3. Resources: North & the South 4. The Union & Confederacy in 1861 5. Men Present for Duty in the Civil War 6. The Leaders of the ConfederacyPres. Jefferson DavisVP Alexander Stevens 7. The Confederate White House 8. The Confederate SealMOTTO With God As Our Vindicator 9. NorthSouth23 States11 StatesUnionConfederateYankeeRebelBlue CoatsGrey CoatsUSACSA 10. The Opposing Sides In 1860 The United States had 8 military colleges, and 7 of them were in the South. The confederacy had a large number of trained officers to lead its armies.The North had strong naval power. 3/4 of the U.S. Navy's officers came from the North.The Navys warships and all but two of the nations shipyards remained under Union Control.North had a larger population. 11. Financing the War: N Both sides had to raise money for the war.The North controlled the treasury, but concern about their ability to win the war, people wanted to withdraw gold and silver from the banks.The banks could not buy government bonds without G & S, and without that, could not pay their troops.Congress passed the Legal Tender Act (February 1862)Created a national currency and allowed the government to issue paper money.Called greenbacks because the color.of 12. Financing the War: S Compared to the North, The Confederacy was poor.Most Southern planters were in debt and unable to buy bonds.They taxed trade, but shortly after the war began, the Union Navy blockaded Southern ports which reduced trade and revenue.They imposed new taxes, but many Southerners refused to pay.Lacking sufficient money, they printed paper money to pay bills. This caused rapid inflation in the South. By the end of the war the South experienced 9,000% inflation compared to 80% in the North. 13. Party Politics in the North Divisions within his own party! Who is he?Many Republicans were abolitionists, but Lincolns goal was to preserve the Union, even if it meant allowing slavery to continue.He also had the DemocratsWar Democrats= supported a war to restore the Union but opposed ending slaveryPeace Democrats=opposed the war and called for reuniting the states through negotiation rather than force 14. Party Politics in the North Republicans vs. DemocratsConscription=forcing people to enter the military service (if not enough volunteers)Many Democrats opposedRiots erupted in Democratic districts 15. Habeas Corpus a legal order for an inquiry to determine whether a person has been lawfully imprisonedTo enforce militia law, Lincoln suspended writs of habeas corpusWhen this is suspended, a person can be imprisoned indefinitely without a trial.Lincoln suspended the writ for anyone who openly supported the rebels or encouraged others to resist the militia draft 16. Weak Southern Government The Confederate Constitution emphasized states rights over a central government.This often interfered with President Jefferson Daviss ability to conduct the war.Many Southern leaders supported the war, but opposed Davis when he supported conscription and established marital law early in 1862. 17. Diplomacy Europe was in a difficult position. The United States did not want them interfering.Confederate leaders wanted the opposite. They wanted the Europeans (especially British) to recognize the Confederate States of America as independent and provide military assistance.British and French relied on their cotton.They all met. The French said they would recognize if the British did so. British leaders were not ready to risk war with the U.S. Until the Confederacy won some victories, and proved they would survive the war, they would not risk it. 18. Military Technology Inexpensive conoidal, cone-shaped bullet (more accurate)Able to inflict high casualties 19. Military Strategies SOUTHERNAt the beginning of the war, Jefferson Davis hoped to encourage his generals to wage a defensive war of attrition (wearing down by constant harassment or attack). He believed that this would eventually exhaust the Unions resources and troops, forcing it to negotiate with the Confederacy. However, Southerners largely rejected this strategy, believing it did not highlight their strength and bravery. 20. Military Strategies NORTHERNUnion General Winfield Scott devised the Anaconda Plan, which was meant to slowly squeeze the life out of the Southern rebellion. He wanted to establish a Union blockade of Southern ports and split the Confederacy by taking the Mississippi, eliminating its ability to receive supplies. Many Northerners, however, wished to achieve a quick victory through a large, powerful invasion of the South. 21. The Anaconda Plan 22. Lincolns GeneralsWinfield Scott Ulysses S. Grant Ambrose BurnsideIrwin McDowellGeorge MeadeGeorge McClellan, Joseph Hooker 23. The Confederate GeneralsStonewall JacksonNathan Bedford ForrestRobert E. LeeGeorge PickettJames LongstreetJeb Stuart 24. Preparing For War First Battle of Bull Run One of the most important battles of the early war was the First Battle of Bull Run. After a strong start, the Union faltered, allowing Confederate forces to surge to victory. The loss showed that the Union would need a large, well-trained army to win the conflict.Conscription By 1862 volunteer enlistment on both sides of the conflict had dropped greatly. The Confederacy instituted the draft in April 1862, and the Union instituted a law requiring state militias to serve three months later. The following year, the Union instituted a formal draft. 25. Battle of Bull Run July, 1861 26. War at Sea 27. The Union Blockade By the spring of 1862, the Union had successfully blockaded nearly every Southern port along the Atlantic. This significantly dampened the Confederacys ability to trade with European nations and halted the importation of supplies.Conflict at Sea Confederate ships built in Britain worked out of foreign ports to attack Union merchant ships. Britains tacit support of the Confederacy by granting permission for the ships construction generated tensions between the Union and Great Britain.Control of New Orleans Union leaders made a push tocapture the port of New Orleans, the Confederacys largest city and an important trading center. In April 1862, a Union naval fleet led by David Farragut captured New Orleans. 28. Damage on the Deck of the Monitor 29. Early Phases of War Battle of Shiloh Battle of ShilohIn early 1862, Grant began efforts to take control of the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers, thus splitting the Confederacy. He quickly controlled Kentucky and large parts of Tennessee, and soon mounted an attack near Shiloh, Tennessee. Although he ultimately forced Confederate forces to retreat, the battle resulted in some 20,000 casualties. 30. Early Phases of War Murfreesboro MurfreesboroConfederate troops then made an unsuccessful foray into Kentucky, even as Union forces made a slow advance on Chattanooga. The two sides met in an indecisive battle near Murfreesboro, Tennessee. 31. Eastern Campaigns Peninsula Campaign Union general McClellan fought persistently to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia. But a series of attacks from Confederate general Lee inflicted heavy casualties on McClellans troops, forcing the latter to retreat. Although it was not a decisive victory for the South, the Seven Days Battles, as they became know, encouraged Lee to mount his own invasion of the North.Battle of Antietam General Lee again met McClellans troops in the bloodiest one-day battle in American history. The conflict ended with some 6,000 dead and 17,000 wounded. Despite heavy losses to both sides, Lees retreat to Virginia marked a major Union victory that prevented the British from openly recognizing the Confederacy. 32. Battle of AntietamBloodiest Single Day of the War September 17, 186223,000 casualties 33. Emancipation in 1863 34. The Emancipation Proclamation The victory at Antietam set the stage for Lincoln to end slavery in the South.Democrats opposed any move to end slavery.Republicans were divided.Lincoln first described the conflict simply as a war to preserve the Union.A year later, many Northerners, including Lincoln, began to conclude that slavery had to end. 35. Representative George Julian Republican from Indiana Republican from Indiana[W]hen I say that this rebellion has its source and life in slavery, I only repeat a simply truism...The mere suppression of the rebellion will be an empty mockery of our sufferings and sacrifices, if slavery shall be spared to canker the heart of the nation anew, and repeat its diabolical deeds.-from The Congressional Globe, January 14, 1862 36. As Lees forces marched toward Antietam, Lincoln said that if the Union could drive those forces from Northern soil, he would issue a proclamation ending slavery.On September 22, 1862, Lincoln kept his promise.He would free all enslaved persons in states sill in rebellion after January 1, 1863.He freed enslaved African Americans only in states at war with the Union. Yet, by its existence, made the conflict not a war to preserve the Union, but a war of liberation. 37. The Emancipation Proclamation 38. Life During War Economies EconomiesSouthern Economic Problems The South faced significant problems by the end of 1862 due to the absence of usable transportation, such as with railroads, and a trade system that had become crippled by the Union naval blockade. Endless troop movements in Virginia and Tennessee damaged cropland, which contributed to major food shortages. Inflation resulting from the shortage of goods and the relative worthlessness of Confederate currency led to riots in cities across the South.Northern Economic Strength The North, however, enjoyed relative economic prosperity, due in large part to its booming manufacturing industries. Increased productivity, trad