Culturally responsive training: Why and how?
Culturally responsive training: Why and how?Anne FoxAnne Fox ApS
Exploring the potential of culturally responsive teaching to intercultural trainingWhat I do: podcast, Teaching Culture course (ERASMUS+ ) online courses1
MapExplore meaning of culturally responsive teaching (CRT)Present a couple of the main tools used in CRTSuggest some benefits of CRT for intercultural trainers
So next, what is meant by culturally responsive teaching? It is not about including Black History Month and other symbolic references to culture in the curriculum2
Culturally Responsive TeachingMaking a diverse group of people feel comfortable, welcome and valued
What CRT means. Comes from the US and is mainly about K12 education. Mainly about race. Eg lots of discussion about the place and value of ebonics.3
Culturally Responsive TeachingNot about intercultural training
What CRT means. Comes from the US and is mainly about K12 education. Focus on the teacher, not the participants4
Culturally Responsive TeachingFocus on instructor
Focus on the teacher, not the participants. About self-awareness first which IC trainers should already have. What can the instructor do to give participants tasks which are authentic to their context? May be a particular challenge in diverse teams/groups5
Culturally Responsive TeachingCould we refer to culturally responsive training?
Wondering if there is potential for crossover, for learning from the CRT literature and practice in the US?6
Toolbox 1: Motivational frameworkWlodkowski frameworkThis framework includes four motivational conditions that the instructor and the learners collaboratively create or enhance:Establishing inclusionDeveloping (positive) attitudeEnhancing meaningEngendering competenceannefox.euThe Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching respects differentindividual cultures and works at the same time to create a common culture in the learningsituation that all adults can accept.
http://raymondwlodkowski.com/Materials/Fostering%20Motivation%20in%20Professional%20Development%20Programs.pdf Note this is addressed to *adults* so there is crossover in the field alreadyeg embarrassment at self-disclosure varies across cultures (a staple of intercultural training)Establishing inclusion: Creating a learning atmosphere in which learners and instructors feel respected by and connected to one another Developing attitude: Creating a favorable disposition toward the learning experience through personal relevance and choice (For example, two participants may both believe their company has to do something to diminish sexual harassment, the programs focus. However, what constitutes sexual harassment may be quite different for each participant. A relevant workshop will have to address both points of view respectfully. ) Enhancing meaning: Creating challenging, thoughtful learning experiences that include learners perspectives and values Engendering competence: Creating an understanding that learners are effective in learning something they value These conditions are essential for developing intrinsic motivation among all participants in a professional development program. 7
The toolbox 2: Participation guidelinesListen carefully, especially to perspectives different from yours. Keep personal information shared in the group confidential. Speak from your own experience, saying, for example, I think or In my experience I have found, rather than generalizing your experience to others by saying, for example, People say, or We believe. Do no blaming or scapegoating. Avoid generalizing about groups of people. Share airtime. Focus on your own learning. annefox.eu
Do you have participation guidelines? Share airtime might be the most difficult across culturesGriffin 1997 Griffin, P. Facilitating Social Justice Education Courses. In M. Adams, L. A. Bell, and P.Griffin (eds.), Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice: A Sourcebook. New York: Routledge,1997. 8
Toolbox 3: Communication strategiesStarting point is the formalised ritual of a traditional classroom
Passive receptive vs participatory interactive (Latino, African American and native Hawaiian) = rude, inconsiderate, speaking out of turn & disruptiveCall-response (talking back, breaking in & talking over)Co-narration where the group performance in telling a story mattersDeductive (didactic) vs inductiveTopic-centred (linear logic) vs topic-chained (anecdotal links)MetaphorStory (as prompt and response)
Geneva Gay Topic chained narratives can be difficult for instructors to understand and follow. Call-response style may contradict the share airtime participation guideline9
Toolbox 4: Cooperative learningWhat is it?Working in small (4-6) groups on a joint taskRoles not task assignment (resource finder, time-keeper, consensus builder, reporter etc)Rotating roles Joint task = essential questionPresentation to other groupsTrainer as facilitator (dont solve problems but identify & suggest tools to solve problems)
Tried and tested
Works well with adultsWorks well with diverse groupsWorks well with diverse cultures
Works in Denmark with migrant language learners10
Toolbox 5: Observation guideWhat do you see?Eg Participation guidelines in useWorking togetherSpirit of inquiryIntellectually safe environmentWhat do you hear?MusicAuthentic discussionEverybody contributesAuthentic feedbackCultural modelling eg use of metaphorsannefox.euCulturally responsive teaching emphasizes cultural ways of learning and cognition rather than focusing on cosmetic race related displays. Affirmation of students cultural roots comes through incorporating deep cultural values and cultural ways of learning using the memory systems of the brainorganizing around social interaction (collectivism), and combining oratory skills with academic talk rather than through superficial pictures of heroes or images of Africa or Mexico or irrelevant mentioning in the curriculum.Hammond, 2015
What now?Apply the Wlodkowski framework (inclusion, positive, meaning, competence)Avoiding stereotype threat and micro aggressionsUse of Cooperative Learning approachAccommodation of different communication stylesannefox.eu
Areas of potential overlap and application for intercultural trainers12
SourcesGay, G Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, research and practice, 2010, Teachers College PressHammond, Z. Culturally Responsive Teaching & the Brain: Promoting authentic engagement and rigor among culturally and linguistically diverse students 2015 Corwin PressWlodkowski, R. J. The Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching is presented as a guide to foster participation, learning, and transfer throughout a professional development program for all participants. Source: New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, no. 98, Summer 2003, Wiley.
LinksAbsolutely Intercultural www.absolutely-intercultural.com Teaching Culture newsletterAnne Fox www.annefox.eu I am on Linked In, Twitter and Facebook (search on foxdenuk)