Culturally Responsive Pedagogy
The Body Ritual of the NacerimaWhat are the significant aspects of the culture of the Nacerima?How might we consider the culture of our students in the classroom?What sorts of considerations might we have to make if we gained a child from Naceriman culture? REALLY???How do we shape our instruction based on misconceptions or stereotypes? How can we overcome this?
Culturally Responsive TeachingRespond to this quote in your K-W-LMost white children have spent their academic lives looking into distorted mirrors of their history and culture which only reflected people like themselves: while most children of color have pointed toward a narrow window, which offered an obstructed view of the world and their place in it.-Mizell, Bennett, Bisse-Bowman, & Morin
Your Classroom of 30 Students19 white17 from two parent home15 will live in single-parent family at some point12 never complete college10 born to unmarried parents10 poor at some point10 a year or behind in school8 live with only one parent6 born poor6 born to mother without hs diploma6 Hispanic6 receive food stamps
Your Classroom, continued6 with foreign born mother5 are poor today5 African American4 no health insurance4 from working poor4 born to teenage mother4 will never graduate from hs1 might be Native American
3 might be gay or bi-sexual3 disabled2 at less than half poverty level2 struggle speaking English1 Asian-AmericanSeveral biracial or biculturalEvery 35 classrooms: 1 student killed by gunfire before 20
Key TermsCultureWay of life common to group of people; includes knowledge deemed important, shared meanings, norms, values, attitudes, ideals, and view of the worldEthnic GroupInviduals within larger culture who share a racial or cultural identity and a set of beliefs, values, and attitudes and who consider themselves members of a distinct group or subculture
Key TermsRaceUsed to distinguish people on the basis of biological traits and characteristicsMinoritiesGroups of people who share certain characteristics and are smaller in number than the majority of the population
StereotypesPositive and Negative StereotypesLead to false assumptions about the ability levels of certain studentsPositive stereotypesBilly, youre Korean. Theres no reason that you cant do the work!Negative stereotypesHannah, you need to act less hysterical when you get an answer wrong. Act like a man, not a girl!
Why dont kids learn?3 theories explain why students fail to learnDeficit theoryExpectation theoryCultural difference theory
Deficit TheorySome students lag because:Values, language patterns, behaviors learned at home dont mesh with culture of U.S. schoolsNot familiar with language of powerAffects student ability to process information and maintain pace with peers
Expectation TheoryStudents of certain ethnic or racial groups fail to learn because teachers EXPECT them to fail to learn!!!Self-fulfilling cycle
Cultural Difference TheoryAcademic Problems can be overcome if teachers bridge the gap separating schools and homeRecognize, use cultural traditions and practices to reach students
Who cares?Why is it important for students to see their reflection in the curriculum: to see themselves and their ancestors and their cultures represented in pages of the curriculum?Not just to feel good but because their ancestors really did play integral roles in the history of this countryPromotes meaningful learningFamiliarity to students
Realistic?Can we reallyRepresent all persons equally?Represent all points of view?Build a curriculum that is honest and based on current scholarship yet promotes good citizenship and attitudes of civic participation?Have a curriculum that raises controversial issues yet enables students to become analytical and thoughtful?
Maybe not, but we can try to constantly address these issues through askingWhat materials, instructional examples and content will I use to achieve learning goals?Resource: Culturally Responsive Teaching: Lesson Planning for Elementary and Middle Grades by J. Irvine & B. Armento
Four Constant Curricular PrinciplesInclusivenessAlternative PerspectivesCommonalities as well as diversityStudent-constructed examples
InclusivenessChilds voice and heritage should be heardAuthentic cultural data, literature, music, art, artifacts, primary source materials and cultural history used in curriculum to represent range of relevant persons and groups that should be included in the studyInclusive, rich and varied array
Question is NOT: Who is my class this year and how can I represent them in the curriculum? (limited view of inclusion)Question IS: During the time period/issue/event/genre/scientific theme we are studying, who is relevant and should be included in the study
Teachers will need to do research to answer this question and students should be a part of this process. By including students, you are keeping true to the idea that students are inquirers with the teacher, and any one source will not usually provide all necessary information.
Alternative PerspectivesWhy?To see issues from a range of perspectivesReach a consensusHave more tolerance for those with differing viewsNew facts/issues ariseTopic takes on new complexity(example, westward expansion, slavery, unions from view of N. Americans, Af. Americans, working class)Gives a more complete view of the wholeChallenged to address conflicting interpretations
Commonalties as Well as Diversity!Stress bothRecognize bonds that unite all humansCommon values of societyPrinciples of justice, equity, value of the individual, importance of democratic idealsFull range of human diversity should be recognizedThe factor that makes each person unique and interestingIdentifying with groupsProvides pride, self-esteem, self-knowledge and identityDoesnt have to conflict with respect for others groupsDo not over generalize about members of any groupEthnic, gender, cultural, religious-may not all hold similar beliefs, values, or patterns of behavior as others in the group.
Student Constructed ExamplesConcrete representations, images, metaphors, examples and graphic organizersGenerated by students and teachers to give meaning and depth to task
Classroom StrategiesAvoid segregated classroomsboys vs. girlsPrevent self-segregationMobilityMove around the room to stay in touch with all studentsCooperative EducationCollaborative groups can helps some studentsALWAYS MONITOR!
Classroom StrategiesDisplaysAvoid over- or under-representation of specific groups or genderEye contactNot all students are comfortable with it!Be aware of personal space and student cultural perspectives about being touchedBuild a relationship with family
Classroom StrategiesAvoid calling on the first student with a response!Be aware of wait time!Assign tasks randomly rather than relying on specific studentsAvoid unequal punishmentBoys tend to be punished more than girls
Culture and YouFor 10 minutes, think of at least 10 different things that might be considered as part of YOUR culture. This might includeFoodsSportsEthnicityReligionHeroes
Family relationshipsRaceNationalityRegional tiesDialectClass/wealthLocal tiesFamily education level
How might your own cultural background impact your teaching?Strengths?Weaknesses?How can teachers work to move beyond their own cultural background?HOW CAN WE KNOW OUR STUDENTS?How do we shape lessons to incorporate cultural differences?
Critical AutobiographyWho you are and what you know influence what you teachIf we have different experiences, cultural backgrounds, or races from our students we have difficulty meeting their needs a cultural mismatch. We may misinterpret their behavior as misbehavior or leave their experiences out of the curriculum. When planning lessons-especially in social studies-we must reflect on how we can take student experiences and cultures into account.Due on October 24th
For Next Time
Read Lies My Teacher Told Me Chapters 1-4Cultural Autobiography DueBe prepared to participate in a Literature Circle.