Colonialism and imperialism

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Presentation on colonialism and imperialism 1870-1914. Causes, main empires, consequences

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<ul><li> 1. Imperialism and colonialism</li></ul> <p> 2. Imperialism and colonialism Imperialism/Colonialism:a policy of conqueringand ruling other lands It existed from the verybeginning of mankindshistory From 1870, theindustrial powers carriedout an astonishingexpansion, building upworldwide empires 3. Imperialism and colonialism 4. Which motives caused imperialism?Economic Motives Industrial nationsneeded raw materials/natural resources(Rubber fromrainforests in CentralAfrica) Markets to sellindustrial products(British India) Overseas investments(constructing railways ,ports) 5. Which motives caused imperialism? 6. Which motives caused imperialism? 7. Which motives caused imperialism?Political causes: National prestige: tobe the best and havethe biggest empire - Different nationalreasons: France toforget the defeat in1870, Germany andItaly to become greatpowers New rivalries: GB vs.Germany, GB vs.France, US vs. Japan 8. Which motives caused imperialism? 9. Which motives caused imperialism? 10. Which motives caused imperialism? 11. Which motives caused imperialism? 12. Which motives caused imperialism? By the late 1800s,Germany waschallengingBritainseconomicleadership. This rivalry was akey factor tounderstandWWIs outbreak 13. Which motives caused imperialism?Geostrategiccauses: Great Britainfought forcontrollingthe seas byacquiringstrategicenclaves(Gibraltar,Malta,Cyprus.) 14. Which motives caused imperialism?Ideological causes Belief in Europeansuperiority Racism, Social Darwinism:conflict between nationsand races leads to socialprogress as superior racesoutcompete inferior ones. Western civilizationundertook the mission ofcivilizing the world(Rudyard Kiplings WhiteMan Burden) Spreading Christianism 15. Which motives caused imperialism?Other factors involved Technologicalsuperiority Steam engine andrailroads allowedeasier travel Quinine to protectEuropeans frommalaria African and Asiandiversity made iteasy to encouragerivalries betweendifferent groupsGunboat diplomacy 16. Great Figures of Colonialism: Benjamin Disraeli 17. Great Figures of Colonialism: Jules Ferry 18. The Great Colonial Empires 19. The Great Colonial Empires From the 18th century, thegreatest European navalpower After the IndustrialRevolution,in the mid-1800s, Britain was themost powerful nation inthe world. Its factories producedmore goods than thoseof any other country. The British Navy guardedthe oceans so that thosegoods could be shippedsafely to ports aroundthe globe. 20. The Great Colonial Empires 21. The Great Colonial Empires 22. Imperialism and colonialism Other countriesfollowed Britainslead and came to seecolonies as necessaryfor their economicwell-being. The French andDutch expanded theirholdings and by 1900France had anempire second in sizeonly to Britains. Spain and Portugalattempted to buildnew empires inAfrica. 23. Imperialism and colonialism Russia expanded intothe Caucasus, CentralAsia, and Siberia. Countries that had nocolonies set out toacquire them: Germany , Italy, andBelgium all took overlands in Africa (withGermany also takingan interest in East Asia&amp; the Pacific islands). 24. Imperialism and colonialism Two non-Europeancountries, the UnitedStates and Japan, alsobecame involved inoverseas expansionduring this period. Both the U.S. and Japanwere interested in EastAsia. Japan took Korea andTaiwan The U.S. took Philippinesin Asia and Puerto Rico inthe Caribbean after US-Spanishwar. 25. The Great Colonial Empires 26. The Great Colonial Empires 27. The Great Colonial Empires 28. The Great Colonial Empires 29. The Great Colonial Empires 30. The Great Colonial Empires 31. The Great Colonial Empires 32. The carve up of Africa In 1870, the Africaninland was almostunknown When Europeans startedtheir expansion in thecontinent, an agreementwas needed to set thebases of the conquestand colonization of Africa In the Berlin Conference(1885), the colonialpowers reached differentagreements to organizethe carve up of Africa 33. The carve up of Africa The Scramble forAfrica, also known asthe Race for Africa orPartition of Africa,was a process ofinvasion, occupation,colonization andannexation ofAfrican territory byEuropean powersbetween 1881 and1914 34. The carve up of Africa 35. Colonisation in other continents China (strong andvery populated state) Concessions:territories controlledby a foreign country.China maintainedsovereignty but gaveall commercial rightsto the dominatingpower. China concededimportant ports toUK and USA. 36. Colonisation in other continents 37. Colonisation in other continents GB: Indiaand Burma France:Indochina TheNetherlands:Indonesia Japan: KoreaandManchuria Russia:Siberia 38. Colonisation in other continents 39. Mixed consequences of imperialism In some casesconsequences weredevastating for thecolonized peoples: Economicexploitation Subjection to aforeign control Foreigners becamethe dominant socialclass Loss of its owncultureBangalore, India, 1877 40. Mixed consequences of imperialism To some extentthere werepositiveconsequences: Improvement ofhealth conditions Access toeducation for thenative elite Construction ofrailways, ports 41. Mixed consequences of imperialism For the colonisers,consequenceswere, in general,positive (wealth,power, self-steem) However, colonialexpansion causednew tensionsamong powers.This rivalry wasone of the causesof WWI </p>

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