Interactions Transformation, Imperialism, & Colonialism.

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Transformation in Western Europe, 16 th -19 th c. New state types emergence of the national state around 1500 well-defined territory relatively centralized Professional armies New accumulation of wealth New economies Exploration of the New World, Industrial capitalism

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Interactions Transformation, Imperialism, & Colonialism Definitions Imperialism Policy of extending control over foreign entities either thru direct or indirect political or economic intervention Colonialism System in which a state claims sovereignty over a foreign people, its resources, & its territory Cecil Rhodes, From Cape to Cairo, as depicted in a 19 th c. Punch magazine. Transformation in Western Europe, 16 th -19 th c. New state types emergence of the national state around 1500 well-defined territory relatively centralized Professional armies New accumulation of wealth New economies Exploration of the New World, Industrial capitalism W. European Transformation New ideas Science and Enlightenment Development of a new scientific discourses New identities Us and Them, Civilized world and uncivilized world, Orient & Occident gradual emergence of nationalism Right, Geromes Napoleon in Egypt (1863) French invasion of Egypt, A romanticized painting of Napoleon inspecting a mummy at the Pyramids. Transformations in Ottoman rule, 19 th century Ottoman reform: The Tanzimat, 1830s-1870s New centralization New technologies (railroad) New education New institutions Nationalism loss of Ottoman territories Communal violence Reform & new powers (Egypt) Erosion of Ottoman economic and political independence Capitulations European protection of non-Muslim minorities 1881 Public Debt Administration Age of Empire, Growing global division between the very powerful and the not powerful Rise of colonial empires Between 1876 & 1914 about 25% of the worlds land surface distributed as colonies among about 6 states (E. Hobsbawm) Reasons: economics (new markets & new resources), strategic reasons, political symbolism, nationalism New European colonialism in the Middle East: Direct & Indirect colonialism British outposts on the Arabian Peninsula, 1799 New settler colonialisms in North Africa French annexation of Algeria, 1834 British administrative occupation of Egypt, 1882 Russian and British imperialism in Iran In the late 19 th c. around 60% of Britains cotton exports went to India & further east Imperialism in Africa, late 19 th -early 20 th century Empires twilight: World War I and its aftermath Choosing the wrong side: The Ottomans in WWI Secret European agreements: Istanbul Agreement Russia, England, France Russia gets Istanbul and the straits; Arabs get Arabia and much of the rest of the Arab world Sykes-Picot Agreement Britain and France Husayn-McMahon Correspondence Balfour Declaration Sykes-Picot Agreement New Maps: the Mandate System League of Nations-sanctioned certain parts of the world were put under trusteeship of various victorious European powers British mandates in the MidEast: Palestine, Iraq, Transjordan French mandates in the MidEast: Syria, Lebanon Outside the Mandate True independence: Turkey Mostly independent: Yemen, S.Arabia Direct colonial rule: Libya (Italy); Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia (French) External control & influence: Iran (Britain, Russia, U.S.), Egypt (Britain) British treaties of protection: Kuwait, Oman, U.A.E.

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