Chemistry Unit 1 PPT 1

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Chemistry Unit 1 PPT 1

Text of Chemistry Unit 1 PPT 1

  • 1. Chemistry Toombs County High School

2. What Is Chemistry? Why is the scope of chemistry so vast? 1.1 3. Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Chemistry is the study of the composition and properties of matter and the changes that matter undergoes. 1.1 4. Because living and nonliving things are made of matter, chemistry affects all aspects of life and most natural events. 1.1 5. Areas of Study What are five traditional areas of study in chemistry? 1.1 6. Five traditional areas of study are organic chemistry inorganic chemistry biochemistry analytical chemistry physical chemistry 1.1 7. Organic chemistry is defined as the study of all chemicals containing carbon. 8. Inorganic chemistry is the study of chemicals that, in general, do not contain carbon. 9. The study of processes that take place in organisms is biochemistry . 10. Analytical chemistry is the area of study that focuses on the composition of matter. 11. Physical chemistry is the area that deals with the mechanism, the rate, and the energy transfer that occurs when matter undergoes a change. 12. Pure and Applied Chemistry How are pure and applied chemistry related? 1.1 13. Pure chemistry is the pursuit of chemical knowledge for its own sake. Applied chemistry is research that is directed toward a practical goal or application. 1.1 14. Pure research can lead directly to an application, but an application can exist before research is done to explain how it works. 1.1 15. Nylon In the early 1930s, Wallace Carothers produced nylon while researching cotton and silk. A team of scientists and engineers applied Carotherss research to the commercial production of nylon. 1.1 16. Aspirin Long before researchers figured out how aspirin works, people used it to relieve pain, and doctors prescribed it for patients who were at risk for a heart attack. In 1971, it was discovered that aspirin can block the production of a group of chemicals that cause pain and lead to the formation of blood clots. This is an example of pure research. 1.1 17. Technology is the means by which a society provides its members with those things needed and desired. Technology allows humans to do some things more quickly or with less effort. There are debates about the risks and benefits of technology. 1.1 18. Why Study Chemistry? What are three general reasons to study chemistry? 1.1 19. Chemistry can be useful in explaining the natural world, preparing people for career opportunities, and producing informed citizens. 1.1 20. Explaining the Natural World Chemistry can help you satisfy your natural desire to understand how things work. 1.1 21. Preparing For a Career Many careers require knowledge of chemistry. A photographer uses chemical processes to control the development of photographs in a darkroom. 1.1 22. Being an Informed Citizen Knowledge of chemistry and other sciences can help you evaluate the data presented, arrive at an informed opinion, and take appropriate action. 1.1 23. Materials What impact do chemists have on materials, energy, medicine, agriculture, the environment, and the study of the universe? 1.2 24. Chemists design materials to fit specific needs. 1.2 25. In 1948, George de Mestral took a close look at the burrs that stuck to his clothing. He saw that each burr was covered with many tiny hooks. In 1955, de Mestral patented the design for the hook-and- loop tapes. These are used as fasteners in shoes and gloves. 1.2 26. This story illustrates two ways of looking at the worldthe macroscopic view and the microscopic view. Burrs belong to the macroscopic world, the world of objects that are large enough to see with the unaided eye. The hooks belong to the microscopic world, or the world of objects that can be seen only under magnification. 1.2 27. Energy Chemists play an essential role in finding ways to conserve energy, produce energy, and store energy. 1.2 28. Conservation One of the easiest ways to conserve energy is through insulation. Insulation acts as a barrier to heat flow from the inside to the outside of a house or from the outside to the inside of a freezer. 1.2 29. SEAgel is a modern insulation that is light enough to float on soap bubbles. 1.2 30. Production The burning of coal, petroleum, and natural gas is a major source of energy. These materials are called fossil fuels. Oil from the soybeans is used to make biodiesel. 1.2 31. Storage Batteries are devices that use chemicals to store energy that will be released as electric current. For some applications, it important to have batteries that can be recharged rather than thrown away. Digital cameras, wireless phones, and laptop computers use rechargeable batteries. 1.2 32. Medicine and Biotechnology Chemistry supplies the medicines, materials, and technology that doctors use to treat their patients. 1.2 33. Medicines There are over 2000 prescription drugs. Many drugs are effective because they interact in a specific way with chemicals in cells. Knowledge of the structure and function of these target chemicals helps a chemist design safe and effective drugs. 1.2 34. Materials Chemistry can supply materials to repair or replace body parts. Artificial hips and knees made from metals and plastics can replace worn-out joints and allow people to walk again without pain. 1.2 35. Biotechnology From 1990 to 2003, scientists worldwide worked on the Human Genome Project. They identified the genes that comprise human DNA about 30,000. The discovery of the structure of DNA led to the development of biotechnology. 1.2 36. Biotechnology applies science to the production of biological products or processes. 1.2 37. Agriculture Chemists help to develop more productive crops and safer, more effective ways to protect crops. 1.2 38. Productivity One way to track productivity is to measure the amount of edible food that is grown on a given unit of land. Chemists test soil to see if it contains the right chemicals to grow a particular crop and recommend ways to improve the soil. 1.2 39. Chemists also help determine when a crop needs water. If the genes from a jellyfish that glows are transferred to a potato plant, the plant glows when it needs to be watered. 1.2 40. Crop Protection Chemists sometimes use chemicals produced by insects to fight insect pests. The plastic tube wrapped around the stem of the tomato plant contains a chemical that a female pinworm moth emits to attract male moths. It interferes with the mating process so that fewer pinworms are produced. 1.2 41. The Environment A pollutant is a material found in air, water, or soil that is harmful to humans or other organisms. Chemists help to identify pollutants and prevent pollution. 1.2 42. Identify Pollutants Until the mid-1900s, lead was used in many products, including paints and gasoline. A study done in 1971 showed that the level of lead that is harmful to humans is much lower than had been thought, especially for children. Even low levels of lead in the blood can permanently damage the nervous system of a growing child. 1.2 43. Prevent Pollution The strategies used to prevent lead poisoning include testing childrens blood for lead, regulation of home sales to families with young children, and public awareness campaigns with posters. 1.2 44. The percentage of children with elevated blood levels has decreased since the 1970s. 1.2 45. The Universe To study the universe, chemists gather data from afar and analyze matter that is brought back to Earth. 1.2 46. Chemists have analyzed more than 850 pounds of moon rocks that were brought back to Earth. Some of these rocks are similar to rocks formed by volcanoes on Earth, suggesting that vast oceans of molten lava once covered the moon's surface. 1.2 47. The robotic vehicle Opportunity was designed to determine the chemical composition of rocks and soil on Mars. Data collected at the vehicles landing site indicated that the site was once drenched with water. 1.2 48. In 1928, Alexander Fleming noticed that bacteria he was studying did not grow in the presence of a yellow-green mold. In 1945, Fleming shared a Nobel Prize for Medicine with Howard Florey and Ernst Chain, who led the team that isolated penicillin. 1.3 49. Alchemy How did alchemy lay the groundwork for chemistry? 1.3 50. Alchemists developed the tools and techniques for working with chemicals. 1.3 51. Alchemists developed processes for separating mixtures and purifying chemicals. They designed equipment that is still in use today including beakers, flasks, tongs, funnels, and the mortar and pestle. Mortar and Pestle 1.3 52. An Experimental Approach to Science How did Lavoisier help to transform chemistry? 1.3 53. Lavoisier helped to transform chemistry from a science of observation to the science of measurement that it is today. 1.3 54. Lavoisier designed a balance that could measure mass to the nearest 0.0005 gram. He also showed that oxygen is required for a material to burn. Reconstruction of Lavoisiers Laboratory 1.3 55. The Scientific Method What are the steps in the scientific method? 1.3 56. The scientific method is a logical, systematic approach to the solution of a scientific problem. Steps in the scientific method include making observations, testing hypotheses, and developing theories. 1.3 57. Making Observations When you use your senses to obtain information, you make an observation. Suppose you try to turn on a flashlight and it does not light. An observation can lead to a question: Whats wrong with the flashlight? 1.3 58. Testing Hypotheses A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an observation. You guess that the flashlight needs new batteries. You can test your hypothesis by putting new batteries in the flashlight. If the flashlight lights, you can be fairly certain that y