of 55 /55
ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1 NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

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Page 1: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

ZOONOTIC helminthiasis

Prof Pratiwi TS

Semester V

1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

They are like monsters

Parasitic zoonoses

Fleas Mites Ticks Hydatids Visceral larva migrans (Toxocara canis

T cati Toxascaris leonina)

Cutaneous larva migrans (Ancylostoma caninum Uncinaria stenocephala)

Trichinellosis Fascioliasis Swimmerrsquos itch (Cercaria longicauda)

2NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Helminth parasitic worm (Greek)ndash Platyhelminthes (flukes tapeworms)ndash Nematodes- (roundworms) literally means

ldquothread-likerdquo

Pathogenic helminths are some of most common parasites

Worlwide distribution

3NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS

Toxocariasis (visceralocular larval migrans)ndash Toxocara canis T cati

Meningoencephalitisndash Balysascaris procyonis

Trichinosisndash Trichinella spiralis

Taeniasisndash Taenia soleum T saginata

Hydatid diseasendash Echinococcus granulosus E multilocularis

4NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

NEMATODES

Life cyclendash Reproduction

bull Amphimictic (sexual)bull Parthenogenetic (from eggs without fertilization)bull Hermaphroditic (possess both male and female

organs or reproduction)bull Oviparous ndash eggs hatch after laidbull Ovoviviparous ndash eggs hatch within uterus live young

expelledndash Types of life cycle

bull Direct- intermediate host not requiredbull Indirect ndash intermediate host required

5NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS (1)

Agent ndash Trichinella spiralis - intestinal nematode of

many wild and domestic carnivores and omnivores

ndash T nativa - Arctic bearsndash T pseudospiralis - mammals and birdsndash T nelsoni - African predators and scavengersndash T britovi - carnivores in Europe Western Asia

Other names for diseasendash trichinellosisndash trichiniasis

6NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Larva in cyst from muscleLarva from Alaskan bear

7NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Agent

Larva in cyst from muscleLarva from Alaskan bear

8NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Life cyclendash larva released from ingested cystndash invade mucosa of small intestine where they

develop into adultsndash after 4 weeks (life span in intestine) females

release larva that migrate to striated musclendash encystment complete in 4-5 weeks

bull note T pseudospiralis does not encyst

ndash may remain viable for several years

9NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

10NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Reservoirndash swine dogs cats rodents many wild animals

especially bears boars marine mammals and large felids

Occurrence ndash worldwide most common in Europe and USndash age adjusted incidence rate 2

Epidemiology

11NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Epidemiology Transmission

ndash ingestion of raw or undercooked meatbull pork and pork productsbull bear meatbull marine mammal meatbull hamburger adulterated with pork

12NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features Incubation period

ndash generally 8-14 days up to 45 days Symptoms

ndash from inapparent to highly fatalndash myalgiandash edema - periorbital and facial edemandash conjunctivitisndash feverndash eosinophiliandash gastrointestinal - diarrhea pain vomiting

13NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features

Life threatening symptomsndashmyocarditisndashCNS involvementndashpneumonitis

14NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Diagnosis Serology

ndash EIAbull ES (excretory-secretory) products - TLS-1 surface

antigens conserved in all species can be used for detection in animals or humans

bull Ab levels not present until 3-5 weeks post infection - IgM IgG IgE peak in 2-3 months

bull IgG most sensitivebull used for routine screening

ndash Bentonite flocculation Muscle biopsy Microscopic examination

15NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Diagnosis detection of larvae in muscle

16NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Treatment Anthelmintics

ndash mebendazole (Vermoxreg)ndash only effective against intestinal stages not

encysted stage Corticosteriods

ndash decrease severity of symptoms during muscle invasion phase

17NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Prevention Proper cooking of pork and pork products

and meat from wild animalsndash internal temperature should reach 160ordmF (71ordmC)

Irradiation of food effectivendash low level gamma - sterilizationndash higher levels - effectively kills trichinae

Freezing will inactivate larvae of T spiralis but not of T nativa (arctic strains)

18NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 2: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Parasitic zoonoses

Fleas Mites Ticks Hydatids Visceral larva migrans (Toxocara canis

T cati Toxascaris leonina)

Cutaneous larva migrans (Ancylostoma caninum Uncinaria stenocephala)

Trichinellosis Fascioliasis Swimmerrsquos itch (Cercaria longicauda)

2NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Helminth parasitic worm (Greek)ndash Platyhelminthes (flukes tapeworms)ndash Nematodes- (roundworms) literally means

ldquothread-likerdquo

Pathogenic helminths are some of most common parasites

Worlwide distribution

3NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS

Toxocariasis (visceralocular larval migrans)ndash Toxocara canis T cati

Meningoencephalitisndash Balysascaris procyonis

Trichinosisndash Trichinella spiralis

Taeniasisndash Taenia soleum T saginata

Hydatid diseasendash Echinococcus granulosus E multilocularis

4NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

NEMATODES

Life cyclendash Reproduction

bull Amphimictic (sexual)bull Parthenogenetic (from eggs without fertilization)bull Hermaphroditic (possess both male and female

organs or reproduction)bull Oviparous ndash eggs hatch after laidbull Ovoviviparous ndash eggs hatch within uterus live young

expelledndash Types of life cycle

bull Direct- intermediate host not requiredbull Indirect ndash intermediate host required

5NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS (1)

Agent ndash Trichinella spiralis - intestinal nematode of

many wild and domestic carnivores and omnivores

ndash T nativa - Arctic bearsndash T pseudospiralis - mammals and birdsndash T nelsoni - African predators and scavengersndash T britovi - carnivores in Europe Western Asia

Other names for diseasendash trichinellosisndash trichiniasis

6NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Larva in cyst from muscleLarva from Alaskan bear

7NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Agent

Larva in cyst from muscleLarva from Alaskan bear

8NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Life cyclendash larva released from ingested cystndash invade mucosa of small intestine where they

develop into adultsndash after 4 weeks (life span in intestine) females

release larva that migrate to striated musclendash encystment complete in 4-5 weeks

bull note T pseudospiralis does not encyst

ndash may remain viable for several years

9NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

10NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Reservoirndash swine dogs cats rodents many wild animals

especially bears boars marine mammals and large felids

Occurrence ndash worldwide most common in Europe and USndash age adjusted incidence rate 2

Epidemiology

11NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Epidemiology Transmission

ndash ingestion of raw or undercooked meatbull pork and pork productsbull bear meatbull marine mammal meatbull hamburger adulterated with pork

12NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features Incubation period

ndash generally 8-14 days up to 45 days Symptoms

ndash from inapparent to highly fatalndash myalgiandash edema - periorbital and facial edemandash conjunctivitisndash feverndash eosinophiliandash gastrointestinal - diarrhea pain vomiting

13NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features

Life threatening symptomsndashmyocarditisndashCNS involvementndashpneumonitis

14NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Diagnosis Serology

ndash EIAbull ES (excretory-secretory) products - TLS-1 surface

antigens conserved in all species can be used for detection in animals or humans

bull Ab levels not present until 3-5 weeks post infection - IgM IgG IgE peak in 2-3 months

bull IgG most sensitivebull used for routine screening

ndash Bentonite flocculation Muscle biopsy Microscopic examination

15NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Diagnosis detection of larvae in muscle

16NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Treatment Anthelmintics

ndash mebendazole (Vermoxreg)ndash only effective against intestinal stages not

encysted stage Corticosteriods

ndash decrease severity of symptoms during muscle invasion phase

17NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Prevention Proper cooking of pork and pork products

and meat from wild animalsndash internal temperature should reach 160ordmF (71ordmC)

Irradiation of food effectivendash low level gamma - sterilizationndash higher levels - effectively kills trichinae

Freezing will inactivate larvae of T spiralis but not of T nativa (arctic strains)

18NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 3: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Helminth parasitic worm (Greek)ndash Platyhelminthes (flukes tapeworms)ndash Nematodes- (roundworms) literally means

ldquothread-likerdquo

Pathogenic helminths are some of most common parasites

Worlwide distribution

3NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS

Toxocariasis (visceralocular larval migrans)ndash Toxocara canis T cati

Meningoencephalitisndash Balysascaris procyonis

Trichinosisndash Trichinella spiralis

Taeniasisndash Taenia soleum T saginata

Hydatid diseasendash Echinococcus granulosus E multilocularis

4NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

NEMATODES

Life cyclendash Reproduction

bull Amphimictic (sexual)bull Parthenogenetic (from eggs without fertilization)bull Hermaphroditic (possess both male and female

organs or reproduction)bull Oviparous ndash eggs hatch after laidbull Ovoviviparous ndash eggs hatch within uterus live young

expelledndash Types of life cycle

bull Direct- intermediate host not requiredbull Indirect ndash intermediate host required

5NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS (1)

Agent ndash Trichinella spiralis - intestinal nematode of

many wild and domestic carnivores and omnivores

ndash T nativa - Arctic bearsndash T pseudospiralis - mammals and birdsndash T nelsoni - African predators and scavengersndash T britovi - carnivores in Europe Western Asia

Other names for diseasendash trichinellosisndash trichiniasis

6NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Larva in cyst from muscleLarva from Alaskan bear

7NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Agent

Larva in cyst from muscleLarva from Alaskan bear

8NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Life cyclendash larva released from ingested cystndash invade mucosa of small intestine where they

develop into adultsndash after 4 weeks (life span in intestine) females

release larva that migrate to striated musclendash encystment complete in 4-5 weeks

bull note T pseudospiralis does not encyst

ndash may remain viable for several years

9NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

10NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Reservoirndash swine dogs cats rodents many wild animals

especially bears boars marine mammals and large felids

Occurrence ndash worldwide most common in Europe and USndash age adjusted incidence rate 2

Epidemiology

11NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Epidemiology Transmission

ndash ingestion of raw or undercooked meatbull pork and pork productsbull bear meatbull marine mammal meatbull hamburger adulterated with pork

12NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features Incubation period

ndash generally 8-14 days up to 45 days Symptoms

ndash from inapparent to highly fatalndash myalgiandash edema - periorbital and facial edemandash conjunctivitisndash feverndash eosinophiliandash gastrointestinal - diarrhea pain vomiting

13NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features

Life threatening symptomsndashmyocarditisndashCNS involvementndashpneumonitis

14NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Diagnosis Serology

ndash EIAbull ES (excretory-secretory) products - TLS-1 surface

antigens conserved in all species can be used for detection in animals or humans

bull Ab levels not present until 3-5 weeks post infection - IgM IgG IgE peak in 2-3 months

bull IgG most sensitivebull used for routine screening

ndash Bentonite flocculation Muscle biopsy Microscopic examination

15NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Diagnosis detection of larvae in muscle

16NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Treatment Anthelmintics

ndash mebendazole (Vermoxreg)ndash only effective against intestinal stages not

encysted stage Corticosteriods

ndash decrease severity of symptoms during muscle invasion phase

17NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Prevention Proper cooking of pork and pork products

and meat from wild animalsndash internal temperature should reach 160ordmF (71ordmC)

Irradiation of food effectivendash low level gamma - sterilizationndash higher levels - effectively kills trichinae

Freezing will inactivate larvae of T spiralis but not of T nativa (arctic strains)

18NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 4: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS

Toxocariasis (visceralocular larval migrans)ndash Toxocara canis T cati

Meningoencephalitisndash Balysascaris procyonis

Trichinosisndash Trichinella spiralis

Taeniasisndash Taenia soleum T saginata

Hydatid diseasendash Echinococcus granulosus E multilocularis

4NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

NEMATODES

Life cyclendash Reproduction

bull Amphimictic (sexual)bull Parthenogenetic (from eggs without fertilization)bull Hermaphroditic (possess both male and female

organs or reproduction)bull Oviparous ndash eggs hatch after laidbull Ovoviviparous ndash eggs hatch within uterus live young

expelledndash Types of life cycle

bull Direct- intermediate host not requiredbull Indirect ndash intermediate host required

5NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS (1)

Agent ndash Trichinella spiralis - intestinal nematode of

many wild and domestic carnivores and omnivores

ndash T nativa - Arctic bearsndash T pseudospiralis - mammals and birdsndash T nelsoni - African predators and scavengersndash T britovi - carnivores in Europe Western Asia

Other names for diseasendash trichinellosisndash trichiniasis

6NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Larva in cyst from muscleLarva from Alaskan bear

7NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Agent

Larva in cyst from muscleLarva from Alaskan bear

8NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Life cyclendash larva released from ingested cystndash invade mucosa of small intestine where they

develop into adultsndash after 4 weeks (life span in intestine) females

release larva that migrate to striated musclendash encystment complete in 4-5 weeks

bull note T pseudospiralis does not encyst

ndash may remain viable for several years

9NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

10NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Reservoirndash swine dogs cats rodents many wild animals

especially bears boars marine mammals and large felids

Occurrence ndash worldwide most common in Europe and USndash age adjusted incidence rate 2

Epidemiology

11NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Epidemiology Transmission

ndash ingestion of raw or undercooked meatbull pork and pork productsbull bear meatbull marine mammal meatbull hamburger adulterated with pork

12NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features Incubation period

ndash generally 8-14 days up to 45 days Symptoms

ndash from inapparent to highly fatalndash myalgiandash edema - periorbital and facial edemandash conjunctivitisndash feverndash eosinophiliandash gastrointestinal - diarrhea pain vomiting

13NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features

Life threatening symptomsndashmyocarditisndashCNS involvementndashpneumonitis

14NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Diagnosis Serology

ndash EIAbull ES (excretory-secretory) products - TLS-1 surface

antigens conserved in all species can be used for detection in animals or humans

bull Ab levels not present until 3-5 weeks post infection - IgM IgG IgE peak in 2-3 months

bull IgG most sensitivebull used for routine screening

ndash Bentonite flocculation Muscle biopsy Microscopic examination

15NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Diagnosis detection of larvae in muscle

16NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Treatment Anthelmintics

ndash mebendazole (Vermoxreg)ndash only effective against intestinal stages not

encysted stage Corticosteriods

ndash decrease severity of symptoms during muscle invasion phase

17NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Prevention Proper cooking of pork and pork products

and meat from wild animalsndash internal temperature should reach 160ordmF (71ordmC)

Irradiation of food effectivendash low level gamma - sterilizationndash higher levels - effectively kills trichinae

Freezing will inactivate larvae of T spiralis but not of T nativa (arctic strains)

18NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 5: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

NEMATODES

Life cyclendash Reproduction

bull Amphimictic (sexual)bull Parthenogenetic (from eggs without fertilization)bull Hermaphroditic (possess both male and female

organs or reproduction)bull Oviparous ndash eggs hatch after laidbull Ovoviviparous ndash eggs hatch within uterus live young

expelledndash Types of life cycle

bull Direct- intermediate host not requiredbull Indirect ndash intermediate host required

5NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS (1)

Agent ndash Trichinella spiralis - intestinal nematode of

many wild and domestic carnivores and omnivores

ndash T nativa - Arctic bearsndash T pseudospiralis - mammals and birdsndash T nelsoni - African predators and scavengersndash T britovi - carnivores in Europe Western Asia

Other names for diseasendash trichinellosisndash trichiniasis

6NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Larva in cyst from muscleLarva from Alaskan bear

7NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Agent

Larva in cyst from muscleLarva from Alaskan bear

8NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Life cyclendash larva released from ingested cystndash invade mucosa of small intestine where they

develop into adultsndash after 4 weeks (life span in intestine) females

release larva that migrate to striated musclendash encystment complete in 4-5 weeks

bull note T pseudospiralis does not encyst

ndash may remain viable for several years

9NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

10NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Reservoirndash swine dogs cats rodents many wild animals

especially bears boars marine mammals and large felids

Occurrence ndash worldwide most common in Europe and USndash age adjusted incidence rate 2

Epidemiology

11NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Epidemiology Transmission

ndash ingestion of raw or undercooked meatbull pork and pork productsbull bear meatbull marine mammal meatbull hamburger adulterated with pork

12NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features Incubation period

ndash generally 8-14 days up to 45 days Symptoms

ndash from inapparent to highly fatalndash myalgiandash edema - periorbital and facial edemandash conjunctivitisndash feverndash eosinophiliandash gastrointestinal - diarrhea pain vomiting

13NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features

Life threatening symptomsndashmyocarditisndashCNS involvementndashpneumonitis

14NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Diagnosis Serology

ndash EIAbull ES (excretory-secretory) products - TLS-1 surface

antigens conserved in all species can be used for detection in animals or humans

bull Ab levels not present until 3-5 weeks post infection - IgM IgG IgE peak in 2-3 months

bull IgG most sensitivebull used for routine screening

ndash Bentonite flocculation Muscle biopsy Microscopic examination

15NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Diagnosis detection of larvae in muscle

16NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Treatment Anthelmintics

ndash mebendazole (Vermoxreg)ndash only effective against intestinal stages not

encysted stage Corticosteriods

ndash decrease severity of symptoms during muscle invasion phase

17NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Prevention Proper cooking of pork and pork products

and meat from wild animalsndash internal temperature should reach 160ordmF (71ordmC)

Irradiation of food effectivendash low level gamma - sterilizationndash higher levels - effectively kills trichinae

Freezing will inactivate larvae of T spiralis but not of T nativa (arctic strains)

18NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 6: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

TRICHINOSIS (1)

Agent ndash Trichinella spiralis - intestinal nematode of

many wild and domestic carnivores and omnivores

ndash T nativa - Arctic bearsndash T pseudospiralis - mammals and birdsndash T nelsoni - African predators and scavengersndash T britovi - carnivores in Europe Western Asia

Other names for diseasendash trichinellosisndash trichiniasis

6NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Larva in cyst from muscleLarva from Alaskan bear

7NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Agent

Larva in cyst from muscleLarva from Alaskan bear

8NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Life cyclendash larva released from ingested cystndash invade mucosa of small intestine where they

develop into adultsndash after 4 weeks (life span in intestine) females

release larva that migrate to striated musclendash encystment complete in 4-5 weeks

bull note T pseudospiralis does not encyst

ndash may remain viable for several years

9NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

10NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Reservoirndash swine dogs cats rodents many wild animals

especially bears boars marine mammals and large felids

Occurrence ndash worldwide most common in Europe and USndash age adjusted incidence rate 2

Epidemiology

11NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Epidemiology Transmission

ndash ingestion of raw or undercooked meatbull pork and pork productsbull bear meatbull marine mammal meatbull hamburger adulterated with pork

12NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features Incubation period

ndash generally 8-14 days up to 45 days Symptoms

ndash from inapparent to highly fatalndash myalgiandash edema - periorbital and facial edemandash conjunctivitisndash feverndash eosinophiliandash gastrointestinal - diarrhea pain vomiting

13NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features

Life threatening symptomsndashmyocarditisndashCNS involvementndashpneumonitis

14NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Diagnosis Serology

ndash EIAbull ES (excretory-secretory) products - TLS-1 surface

antigens conserved in all species can be used for detection in animals or humans

bull Ab levels not present until 3-5 weeks post infection - IgM IgG IgE peak in 2-3 months

bull IgG most sensitivebull used for routine screening

ndash Bentonite flocculation Muscle biopsy Microscopic examination

15NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Diagnosis detection of larvae in muscle

16NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Treatment Anthelmintics

ndash mebendazole (Vermoxreg)ndash only effective against intestinal stages not

encysted stage Corticosteriods

ndash decrease severity of symptoms during muscle invasion phase

17NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Prevention Proper cooking of pork and pork products

and meat from wild animalsndash internal temperature should reach 160ordmF (71ordmC)

Irradiation of food effectivendash low level gamma - sterilizationndash higher levels - effectively kills trichinae

Freezing will inactivate larvae of T spiralis but not of T nativa (arctic strains)

18NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 7: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Larva in cyst from muscleLarva from Alaskan bear

7NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Agent

Larva in cyst from muscleLarva from Alaskan bear

8NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Life cyclendash larva released from ingested cystndash invade mucosa of small intestine where they

develop into adultsndash after 4 weeks (life span in intestine) females

release larva that migrate to striated musclendash encystment complete in 4-5 weeks

bull note T pseudospiralis does not encyst

ndash may remain viable for several years

9NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

10NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Reservoirndash swine dogs cats rodents many wild animals

especially bears boars marine mammals and large felids

Occurrence ndash worldwide most common in Europe and USndash age adjusted incidence rate 2

Epidemiology

11NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Epidemiology Transmission

ndash ingestion of raw or undercooked meatbull pork and pork productsbull bear meatbull marine mammal meatbull hamburger adulterated with pork

12NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features Incubation period

ndash generally 8-14 days up to 45 days Symptoms

ndash from inapparent to highly fatalndash myalgiandash edema - periorbital and facial edemandash conjunctivitisndash feverndash eosinophiliandash gastrointestinal - diarrhea pain vomiting

13NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features

Life threatening symptomsndashmyocarditisndashCNS involvementndashpneumonitis

14NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Diagnosis Serology

ndash EIAbull ES (excretory-secretory) products - TLS-1 surface

antigens conserved in all species can be used for detection in animals or humans

bull Ab levels not present until 3-5 weeks post infection - IgM IgG IgE peak in 2-3 months

bull IgG most sensitivebull used for routine screening

ndash Bentonite flocculation Muscle biopsy Microscopic examination

15NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Diagnosis detection of larvae in muscle

16NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Treatment Anthelmintics

ndash mebendazole (Vermoxreg)ndash only effective against intestinal stages not

encysted stage Corticosteriods

ndash decrease severity of symptoms during muscle invasion phase

17NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Prevention Proper cooking of pork and pork products

and meat from wild animalsndash internal temperature should reach 160ordmF (71ordmC)

Irradiation of food effectivendash low level gamma - sterilizationndash higher levels - effectively kills trichinae

Freezing will inactivate larvae of T spiralis but not of T nativa (arctic strains)

18NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 8: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Agent

Larva in cyst from muscleLarva from Alaskan bear

8NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Life cyclendash larva released from ingested cystndash invade mucosa of small intestine where they

develop into adultsndash after 4 weeks (life span in intestine) females

release larva that migrate to striated musclendash encystment complete in 4-5 weeks

bull note T pseudospiralis does not encyst

ndash may remain viable for several years

9NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

10NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Reservoirndash swine dogs cats rodents many wild animals

especially bears boars marine mammals and large felids

Occurrence ndash worldwide most common in Europe and USndash age adjusted incidence rate 2

Epidemiology

11NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Epidemiology Transmission

ndash ingestion of raw or undercooked meatbull pork and pork productsbull bear meatbull marine mammal meatbull hamburger adulterated with pork

12NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features Incubation period

ndash generally 8-14 days up to 45 days Symptoms

ndash from inapparent to highly fatalndash myalgiandash edema - periorbital and facial edemandash conjunctivitisndash feverndash eosinophiliandash gastrointestinal - diarrhea pain vomiting

13NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features

Life threatening symptomsndashmyocarditisndashCNS involvementndashpneumonitis

14NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Diagnosis Serology

ndash EIAbull ES (excretory-secretory) products - TLS-1 surface

antigens conserved in all species can be used for detection in animals or humans

bull Ab levels not present until 3-5 weeks post infection - IgM IgG IgE peak in 2-3 months

bull IgG most sensitivebull used for routine screening

ndash Bentonite flocculation Muscle biopsy Microscopic examination

15NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Diagnosis detection of larvae in muscle

16NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Treatment Anthelmintics

ndash mebendazole (Vermoxreg)ndash only effective against intestinal stages not

encysted stage Corticosteriods

ndash decrease severity of symptoms during muscle invasion phase

17NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Prevention Proper cooking of pork and pork products

and meat from wild animalsndash internal temperature should reach 160ordmF (71ordmC)

Irradiation of food effectivendash low level gamma - sterilizationndash higher levels - effectively kills trichinae

Freezing will inactivate larvae of T spiralis but not of T nativa (arctic strains)

18NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 9: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Life cyclendash larva released from ingested cystndash invade mucosa of small intestine where they

develop into adultsndash after 4 weeks (life span in intestine) females

release larva that migrate to striated musclendash encystment complete in 4-5 weeks

bull note T pseudospiralis does not encyst

ndash may remain viable for several years

9NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

10NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Reservoirndash swine dogs cats rodents many wild animals

especially bears boars marine mammals and large felids

Occurrence ndash worldwide most common in Europe and USndash age adjusted incidence rate 2

Epidemiology

11NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Epidemiology Transmission

ndash ingestion of raw or undercooked meatbull pork and pork productsbull bear meatbull marine mammal meatbull hamburger adulterated with pork

12NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features Incubation period

ndash generally 8-14 days up to 45 days Symptoms

ndash from inapparent to highly fatalndash myalgiandash edema - periorbital and facial edemandash conjunctivitisndash feverndash eosinophiliandash gastrointestinal - diarrhea pain vomiting

13NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features

Life threatening symptomsndashmyocarditisndashCNS involvementndashpneumonitis

14NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Diagnosis Serology

ndash EIAbull ES (excretory-secretory) products - TLS-1 surface

antigens conserved in all species can be used for detection in animals or humans

bull Ab levels not present until 3-5 weeks post infection - IgM IgG IgE peak in 2-3 months

bull IgG most sensitivebull used for routine screening

ndash Bentonite flocculation Muscle biopsy Microscopic examination

15NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Diagnosis detection of larvae in muscle

16NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Treatment Anthelmintics

ndash mebendazole (Vermoxreg)ndash only effective against intestinal stages not

encysted stage Corticosteriods

ndash decrease severity of symptoms during muscle invasion phase

17NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Prevention Proper cooking of pork and pork products

and meat from wild animalsndash internal temperature should reach 160ordmF (71ordmC)

Irradiation of food effectivendash low level gamma - sterilizationndash higher levels - effectively kills trichinae

Freezing will inactivate larvae of T spiralis but not of T nativa (arctic strains)

18NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 10: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

10NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Reservoirndash swine dogs cats rodents many wild animals

especially bears boars marine mammals and large felids

Occurrence ndash worldwide most common in Europe and USndash age adjusted incidence rate 2

Epidemiology

11NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Epidemiology Transmission

ndash ingestion of raw or undercooked meatbull pork and pork productsbull bear meatbull marine mammal meatbull hamburger adulterated with pork

12NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features Incubation period

ndash generally 8-14 days up to 45 days Symptoms

ndash from inapparent to highly fatalndash myalgiandash edema - periorbital and facial edemandash conjunctivitisndash feverndash eosinophiliandash gastrointestinal - diarrhea pain vomiting

13NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features

Life threatening symptomsndashmyocarditisndashCNS involvementndashpneumonitis

14NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Diagnosis Serology

ndash EIAbull ES (excretory-secretory) products - TLS-1 surface

antigens conserved in all species can be used for detection in animals or humans

bull Ab levels not present until 3-5 weeks post infection - IgM IgG IgE peak in 2-3 months

bull IgG most sensitivebull used for routine screening

ndash Bentonite flocculation Muscle biopsy Microscopic examination

15NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Diagnosis detection of larvae in muscle

16NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Treatment Anthelmintics

ndash mebendazole (Vermoxreg)ndash only effective against intestinal stages not

encysted stage Corticosteriods

ndash decrease severity of symptoms during muscle invasion phase

17NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Prevention Proper cooking of pork and pork products

and meat from wild animalsndash internal temperature should reach 160ordmF (71ordmC)

Irradiation of food effectivendash low level gamma - sterilizationndash higher levels - effectively kills trichinae

Freezing will inactivate larvae of T spiralis but not of T nativa (arctic strains)

18NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 11: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Reservoirndash swine dogs cats rodents many wild animals

especially bears boars marine mammals and large felids

Occurrence ndash worldwide most common in Europe and USndash age adjusted incidence rate 2

Epidemiology

11NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Epidemiology Transmission

ndash ingestion of raw or undercooked meatbull pork and pork productsbull bear meatbull marine mammal meatbull hamburger adulterated with pork

12NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features Incubation period

ndash generally 8-14 days up to 45 days Symptoms

ndash from inapparent to highly fatalndash myalgiandash edema - periorbital and facial edemandash conjunctivitisndash feverndash eosinophiliandash gastrointestinal - diarrhea pain vomiting

13NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features

Life threatening symptomsndashmyocarditisndashCNS involvementndashpneumonitis

14NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Diagnosis Serology

ndash EIAbull ES (excretory-secretory) products - TLS-1 surface

antigens conserved in all species can be used for detection in animals or humans

bull Ab levels not present until 3-5 weeks post infection - IgM IgG IgE peak in 2-3 months

bull IgG most sensitivebull used for routine screening

ndash Bentonite flocculation Muscle biopsy Microscopic examination

15NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Diagnosis detection of larvae in muscle

16NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Treatment Anthelmintics

ndash mebendazole (Vermoxreg)ndash only effective against intestinal stages not

encysted stage Corticosteriods

ndash decrease severity of symptoms during muscle invasion phase

17NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Prevention Proper cooking of pork and pork products

and meat from wild animalsndash internal temperature should reach 160ordmF (71ordmC)

Irradiation of food effectivendash low level gamma - sterilizationndash higher levels - effectively kills trichinae

Freezing will inactivate larvae of T spiralis but not of T nativa (arctic strains)

18NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 12: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Epidemiology Transmission

ndash ingestion of raw or undercooked meatbull pork and pork productsbull bear meatbull marine mammal meatbull hamburger adulterated with pork

12NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features Incubation period

ndash generally 8-14 days up to 45 days Symptoms

ndash from inapparent to highly fatalndash myalgiandash edema - periorbital and facial edemandash conjunctivitisndash feverndash eosinophiliandash gastrointestinal - diarrhea pain vomiting

13NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features

Life threatening symptomsndashmyocarditisndashCNS involvementndashpneumonitis

14NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Diagnosis Serology

ndash EIAbull ES (excretory-secretory) products - TLS-1 surface

antigens conserved in all species can be used for detection in animals or humans

bull Ab levels not present until 3-5 weeks post infection - IgM IgG IgE peak in 2-3 months

bull IgG most sensitivebull used for routine screening

ndash Bentonite flocculation Muscle biopsy Microscopic examination

15NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Diagnosis detection of larvae in muscle

16NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Treatment Anthelmintics

ndash mebendazole (Vermoxreg)ndash only effective against intestinal stages not

encysted stage Corticosteriods

ndash decrease severity of symptoms during muscle invasion phase

17NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Prevention Proper cooking of pork and pork products

and meat from wild animalsndash internal temperature should reach 160ordmF (71ordmC)

Irradiation of food effectivendash low level gamma - sterilizationndash higher levels - effectively kills trichinae

Freezing will inactivate larvae of T spiralis but not of T nativa (arctic strains)

18NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 13: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Clinical features Incubation period

ndash generally 8-14 days up to 45 days Symptoms

ndash from inapparent to highly fatalndash myalgiandash edema - periorbital and facial edemandash conjunctivitisndash feverndash eosinophiliandash gastrointestinal - diarrhea pain vomiting

13NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Clinical features

Life threatening symptomsndashmyocarditisndashCNS involvementndashpneumonitis

14NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Diagnosis Serology

ndash EIAbull ES (excretory-secretory) products - TLS-1 surface

antigens conserved in all species can be used for detection in animals or humans

bull Ab levels not present until 3-5 weeks post infection - IgM IgG IgE peak in 2-3 months

bull IgG most sensitivebull used for routine screening

ndash Bentonite flocculation Muscle biopsy Microscopic examination

15NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Diagnosis detection of larvae in muscle

16NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Treatment Anthelmintics

ndash mebendazole (Vermoxreg)ndash only effective against intestinal stages not

encysted stage Corticosteriods

ndash decrease severity of symptoms during muscle invasion phase

17NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Prevention Proper cooking of pork and pork products

and meat from wild animalsndash internal temperature should reach 160ordmF (71ordmC)

Irradiation of food effectivendash low level gamma - sterilizationndash higher levels - effectively kills trichinae

Freezing will inactivate larvae of T spiralis but not of T nativa (arctic strains)

18NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 14: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Clinical features

Life threatening symptomsndashmyocarditisndashCNS involvementndashpneumonitis

14NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Diagnosis Serology

ndash EIAbull ES (excretory-secretory) products - TLS-1 surface

antigens conserved in all species can be used for detection in animals or humans

bull Ab levels not present until 3-5 weeks post infection - IgM IgG IgE peak in 2-3 months

bull IgG most sensitivebull used for routine screening

ndash Bentonite flocculation Muscle biopsy Microscopic examination

15NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Diagnosis detection of larvae in muscle

16NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Treatment Anthelmintics

ndash mebendazole (Vermoxreg)ndash only effective against intestinal stages not

encysted stage Corticosteriods

ndash decrease severity of symptoms during muscle invasion phase

17NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Prevention Proper cooking of pork and pork products

and meat from wild animalsndash internal temperature should reach 160ordmF (71ordmC)

Irradiation of food effectivendash low level gamma - sterilizationndash higher levels - effectively kills trichinae

Freezing will inactivate larvae of T spiralis but not of T nativa (arctic strains)

18NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 15: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Diagnosis Serology

ndash EIAbull ES (excretory-secretory) products - TLS-1 surface

antigens conserved in all species can be used for detection in animals or humans

bull Ab levels not present until 3-5 weeks post infection - IgM IgG IgE peak in 2-3 months

bull IgG most sensitivebull used for routine screening

ndash Bentonite flocculation Muscle biopsy Microscopic examination

15NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Diagnosis detection of larvae in muscle

16NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Treatment Anthelmintics

ndash mebendazole (Vermoxreg)ndash only effective against intestinal stages not

encysted stage Corticosteriods

ndash decrease severity of symptoms during muscle invasion phase

17NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Prevention Proper cooking of pork and pork products

and meat from wild animalsndash internal temperature should reach 160ordmF (71ordmC)

Irradiation of food effectivendash low level gamma - sterilizationndash higher levels - effectively kills trichinae

Freezing will inactivate larvae of T spiralis but not of T nativa (arctic strains)

18NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 16: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

TRICHINOSIS

Diagnosis detection of larvae in muscle

16NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Treatment Anthelmintics

ndash mebendazole (Vermoxreg)ndash only effective against intestinal stages not

encysted stage Corticosteriods

ndash decrease severity of symptoms during muscle invasion phase

17NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Prevention Proper cooking of pork and pork products

and meat from wild animalsndash internal temperature should reach 160ordmF (71ordmC)

Irradiation of food effectivendash low level gamma - sterilizationndash higher levels - effectively kills trichinae

Freezing will inactivate larvae of T spiralis but not of T nativa (arctic strains)

18NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 17: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

TRICHINOSIS

Treatment Anthelmintics

ndash mebendazole (Vermoxreg)ndash only effective against intestinal stages not

encysted stage Corticosteriods

ndash decrease severity of symptoms during muscle invasion phase

17NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TRICHINOSIS

Prevention Proper cooking of pork and pork products

and meat from wild animalsndash internal temperature should reach 160ordmF (71ordmC)

Irradiation of food effectivendash low level gamma - sterilizationndash higher levels - effectively kills trichinae

Freezing will inactivate larvae of T spiralis but not of T nativa (arctic strains)

18NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 18: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

TRICHINOSIS

Prevention Proper cooking of pork and pork products

and meat from wild animalsndash internal temperature should reach 160ordmF (71ordmC)

Irradiation of food effectivendash low level gamma - sterilizationndash higher levels - effectively kills trichinae

Freezing will inactivate larvae of T spiralis but not of T nativa (arctic strains)

18NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 19: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Trichinella spiralis ndash trichinellosis

Rodent gt pig cycleHuman infection from eating undercooked pork

19NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 20: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Dogs cats Toxocara sp Toxascaris Horses Parascaris equorum Swine Ascaris suum Cattle Neoascaris (Toxocara) vitulorum

Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 20

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 21: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Toxocariasis (2)

Toxocara canis Toxocara catti Toxocara vitulorum

21NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 22: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

TOXOCARA VITULORUM

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 22

Studi epidemiology

bull 5424-76 Garut (Simon dan Syahrial 1992)

bull 70-100 Srilanka (Robert 1992)

bull 89 Myanmar (Lorh et al 1986)

bull 75 Bali (Gunawan dan Putra 1982)

Hasil Pengamatan UBbull 76 Malang Selatan (Ifar dan Pratiwi 1991 ndash INRES)

bull 89 Nganjuk (Pratiwi dkk 1993 - STD3 )bull

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 23: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

SIKLUS HIDUP

23NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 24: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

24NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 25: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Visceral larva migrans

25NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 26: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Cutaneous larva migrans

Uncinaria stenocephalaAncylostoma caninum

Direct penetration of the skin by hookworm 3rd stage

larvae which develop in the environment from eggs shed

in dog or cat faeces

26NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 27: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Ascarids of dogs and cats

Toxocara canis T Cati Toxascaris leonina Very common amp important roundworms virtually all puppies amp kittens are

infected early in life zoonotic cause visceral amp ocular

larval migrans in humans

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 27

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 28: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Cutaneous Larval Migrans Hookworms (Ancylostoma and

Uncinaria) can produce cutaneous larval migrans

Eggs are passed Larva develop and penetrate human

skin- cases of walking barefoot in yard- Australia

Ingestion of worms leads to intestinal problems

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 28

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 29: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

29NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 30: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Toxocara cati Common roundworm of wild and

domestic felids Very common in kittens Rare in dogs Common in feral cats wild felids as

result of ingesting paratenic hosts rodents chickens birds earthworms

cockroaches ruminants etc Milk based transmission only NO transplacental transmission

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 30

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 31: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Adults in small intestine rarr eggs (lots) in fecesInfective larva develops within egg in ~2-4 weeksEgg with larva ingested

Larva hatches in duodenum

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 31

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 32: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Larval migrationpathway amp fate of larvae varies with host age and susceptibility

young hostslt12 weeks liver-lungtracheal migration

older hosts gt 12 weeks liver-lungsomatic migration

Life cycle of T canis

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 32

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 33: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Summary T canis transmission

Transplacental transmission to fetal liver via activated hypobiotic larvae in bitch

Ingestion of

Egg in environment with infective larva

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 33

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 34: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 34

Larvae from colostrum or milk of dam Hypobiotic larvae in paratenic host tissues Eggs larvae or immature worms in puppy vomit or feces

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 35: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Hookworms of dogs and cats

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 35

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 36: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Hookworms amp Roundworms

36NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 37: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Hookworms amp Roundworms

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 37

Carried by dogs and cats Kids often get infected from

playing in sand boxes which animals have defecated

Or by putting toys in their mouth which have been on the ground

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 38: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts 38

Can penetrate the skin and gain entry into the human body

Bare feet are a common route of entry

Hookworms (3)

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 39: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Wearing shoes is one of the best ways to

prevent parasites from entering your feet

39NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 40: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Hookworm transmissionL3 (infective larvae) can be acquired by 1 Skin penetration 2 Ingestion In food or water Lactogenic transmission major source of infection of puppies Ingestion of arrested larvae in paratenic hosts 3 Transplacental route ~unimportant

40NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 41: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Ancylostoma caninum(4)

1048699 Very common in dogs of all ages in midwest1048699 More significant problem in south amp central US1048699 Infectious larval stage (L3) survive best in moistsandy-loam soils at moderate temperatures1048699 do not survive freezing1048699 do not survive at temps gt37 ordmC1048699 Clinical cases more common during warm weather

41NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 42: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Hookworms of dogs and catsAncylostoma caninum1048699 common hookworm of dogs1048699 very rare in cats1048699 most pathogenic hookworm indogscats A tubaeforme1048699 common hookworm of felids1048699 rare in dogs

42NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 43: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Uncinaria stenocephala (5)More prevalent in northern US1048699 less common amp less pathogenic than Acaninum because it sucks less blood1048699 Structure eggs slightly larger than A caninum1048699 Lactogenic transmission important1048699 No prenatal transmission

43NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 44: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

2 If adult hookworms killed by an anthelmintic arrested larvae can be activated and quickly repopulate the SI

44NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 45: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Persistent hookworm infectionSource of infection hypobiotic larvae in SI mucosa or muscles

1 Larvae ldquoleakrdquo out of these sites ~continuously and reach the SI lumen1048699 if animal already has adults in SI probably shed into lumen and expelled1048699 if no hookworms present develop to adults

45NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 46: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Hookworms Public health importance Cause cutaneous larval

migrans (CLM)1048699 linear tortuous erythematous and intensely pruritic eruptions caused by migration of nematode larvae in humans

1048699 Most commonly caused by A braziliense 1048699 A caninum U stenocephala Bunostomum spp amp Strongyloides spp can also cause CLM1048699 Known as ldquobarnyard itchrdquo ldquocreeping eruptionrdquoor ldquoground itchrdquo

46NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 47: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Typical clinical signs in pups

1048699 Pot-belly1048699 Ill thrift1048699 Dull dry hair coat1048699 Abdominal discomfort1048699 Vomiting1048699 Mucoid diarrhea1048699 may alternate with constipation1048699 Toxocara in vomitfeces

47NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 48: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Trichinella in muscle

48NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 49: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

49

Pinworm (Enterobius (4))

Extremely common most notable in young children

400000000 worldwide

Direct life cycle

Female 8-13 mm

Male 2-5 mmImage from OSU

wwwemedicinecommedimages18381jpgNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 50: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

50

Pinworm (Enterobius)Eggs ingested

Larvae hatch in small intestine (2 molts) and migrate to colon

Mature and mate

Females (containing ~10000 eggs) migrate out of

anus and lay eggs on anal skin after explosive evagination of uterus

Eggs become infective (embryonate) after 6 hNEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 51: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

51

Pinworm (Enterobius)

INTENSE ANAL ITCHING ndash main symptombut many persons with low level carriage are asymptomatic

Diagnosis

characteristic eggs on anal skin - detected using clear sticky tape (Scotch tape test) Sometimes worms seen in feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 52: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

52

Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)

Similar life cycle to pinworm except adults live in colon and females release ~5000 eggsday directly into feces

Eggs take ~3-4 weeks to become infectious (embryonate) in soil

Infection by ingesting embryonated eggs

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 53: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

53

Whipworm - Trichuris

Often coinfecting with hookworm and Ascaris 1 billion personsExtremely heavy infections can cause rectal prolapse

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 54: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

54

Egg shape and size allows you to identify a helminth Fecal preps

Fluke eggsOften have a cap

ldquooperculumrdquo

Roundworms

Tapeworms

Flukes

Urine and feces

Sputum and feces

NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
Page 55: ZOONOTIC helminthiasis Prof Pratiwi TS Semester V 1NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts They are like monsters!!!!

Tugas presentasi

55NEMATODA -ZOONOSIS-1 pts

  • ZOONOTIC helminthiasis
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Slide 3
  • ZOONOTIC HELMINTHIASIS
  • NEMATODES
  • TRICHINOSIS (1)
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Epidemiology
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • TRICHINOSIS (2)
  • TRICHINOSIS (3)
  • TRICHINOSIS (4)
  • Slide 19
  • Roundworms
  • Toxocariasis (2)
  • TOXOCARA VITULORUM
  • SIKLUS HIDUP
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Ascarids of dogs and cats
  • Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  • Slide 29
  • Toxocara cati
  • Life cycle of T canis
  • Life cycle of T canis (2)
  • Summary T canis transmission
  • Slide 34
  • Hookworms of dogs and cats
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms
  • Hookworms amp Roundworms (2)
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • Slide 43
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • Slide 46
  • Slide 47
  • Trichinella in muscle
  • Pinworm (Enterobius (4))
  • Pinworm (Enterobius)
  • Pinworm (Enterobius) (2)
  • Whipworm ndash Trichuris (5)
  • Whipworm - Trichuris
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55