What Is Fashion? 1 Chapter 1 What Is Fashion? Introducing Fashion Fashion History
What Is Fashion? 2 Chapter Objectives Identify the merchandise categories of fashion. Explain the difference between style and design. Explain the different definitions of fashion. Identify the needs satisfied by clothing. Discuss the early history of clothing. Name some influential people in fashion industry. Identify specific styles in the 20 th century.
Fashion Defined Section 1.1 In the apparel industry, fashion is the existing type of clothing that is preferred by a large segment of the public. To many people, fashion is a current trend that is popular for frivolous reasons. To some people, fashion is a precise style of dress or behavior that is acceptable in one year, but not in another. To retailers, fashion is whatever is currently selling. To sociologists, fashion represents a way of social interaction and status seeking. Definitions of Fashion 3
What Is Fashion? 4 Merchandise Categories Fashion retailers group merchandise into categoriesbasic merchandise and fashion merchandise. fashion merchandise goods that are popular at a particular time Section 1.1 Staple items are in the basic merchandise category. staple items basic merchandise that customers purchase on a regular basis
What Is Fashion? 5 Fashion Basics To be successful in the fashion industry, designers, producers, marketers, and retailers must have an understanding of basic fashion terms, such as style and design. style a particular shape or type of apparel item identified by the distinct features that make it unique Section 1.1 design a particular or unique version of a style because of a specific arrangement of the basic design elements
What Is Fashion? 6 Fashion Basics A retail customer may select a garment based on its color. garment any article of clothing, such as a dress, suit, coat, or sweater Section 1.1
What Is Fashion? 7 Fashion Basics The three dimensions of color are: Section 1.1 Huethe quality of the color Valuethe lightness or darkness of a color Intensitythe brightness or dullness of a color
What Is Fashion? 8 Fashion Basics Line is an element of design that directs the path of eye movement. Shape, or silhouette, is the overall form or outline of a garment. Texture is how the surface of a material, or fabric, feels and looks. Function refers to the intended use or purpose of an object. Section 1.1
What Is Fashion? 9 Three basic shapes in fashion: Bell-shaped or bouffant Straight or tubular Bustle shaped or back full
What Is Fashion? 10 What Are Fashion Products? Fashion is anything that has strong appeal at a given time. Fashion is is usually determined by taste. Taste refers to the current opinion of what is attractive and appropriate for an individual and occasion. Section 1.1
What Is Fashion? 11 What Are Fashion Products? Fashion products include: Section 1.1 Clothing Accessories Home Furnishings
What Is Fashion? 12 The Importance of Fashion Economic and political trends, current events, and social issues are often reflected in fashion. Fashion serves as a historical record of culture and lifestyle. Section 1.1
What Is Fashion? 13 Importance to People Personal appearance can identify social position and reflect a persons self- image. Section 1.1
What Is Fashion? 14 Economic Importance Fashion is one of the worlds largest industries. It affects the global economy and local economies. Section 1.1
What Is Fashion? 15 Economic Importance Fashion can be a reflection of the economic environment. When people are unable to satisfy their basic needs for food and shelter, style becomes less important. Section 1.1
What Is Fashion? 16 What is the difference between style and design? What are four basic elements of design? How do economic conditions affect fashion? 1. 2. 3. Section 1.1 1.1
What Is Fashion? 17 Earliest Clothing The earliest clothing dates from about 20,000 B.C. The earliest clothes were developed primarily for protection from the weather and environment. The earliest clothes were made of fur, animal skin, leaves, and grass. Section 1.2
Why People Wear Clothes Section 1.2 Physical Needs protection safety Social Needs affiliation/fitting in standards Psychological Needs identity adornment cultural identity 18
What Is Fashion? 19 Sources of Clothing History The evolution of dress can represent a visual history of a culture. Section 1.2 Sources of clothing history include: Actual garments Old paintings Fashion publications Photographs Written publications
What Is Fashion? 20 Fashion Through the Ages Centuries ago, people dressed according to what society allowed for the social classes. The wealthy class dictated fashion. During the 18 th century, political and social shifts contributed to the growth and influence of the middle or working class. Section 1.2
What Is Fashion? 21 Fashion Through the Ages During the Industrial Revolution of the 1800s, garments began being mass-produced. The invention of photography influenced the spread of styles. The fashion magazine Vogue was first published in 1892. Section 1.2
What Is Fashion? 22 Historical Trendsetters Elizabeth I Clothing indicator of social status Louis XIV Sent life-size fashion dolls to every European court Marie Antoinette Trendsetter for ornate styles Section 1.2
What Is Fashion? 23 Historical Trendsetters George Bryan Beau Brummell Dandyism dandyism during the 1880s, a style of dress for men and a lifestyle that celebrated elegance and refinement Section 1.2 Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Understated elegance The Beatles Mop-top hairstyles
What Is Fashion? 24 Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present The Early 1900s Section 1.2 In 1909, Vogue features new loose-fitting clothing for women. Women stop wearing corsets. Skirts get slightly shorter. The invention of rayon leads to more functional clothing.
What Is Fashion? 25 Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present The 1920s Section 1.2 Gabrielle Coco Chanel introduces sportswear garments and trousers for everyday wear. Chanel promotes the style of the flappers. Chanel introduces the little black dress. The one-hour dress is invented by the Womens Fashion Institute. Styles are simpler.
What Is Fashion? 26 Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present The 1930s1950s Section 1.2 Movie stars set trends for hair, makeup, and clothes. Nylon is invented by DuPont. To save fabric during wartime, hemlines become shorter. Simple styles represent patriotism during wartime. American designers become more prominent.
What Is Fashion? 27 Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present The 1930s1950s Section 1.2 Womens styles become more traditionally feminine in the 1950s. Christian Dior launches a new style in 1947 called the New Look. New Look a style of the 1940s that featured long hemlines, narrow shoulders, and tightly fitted bodices with long, full, or narrow skirts
What Is Fashion? 28 Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present The 1960s Section 1.2 Social changes, world events, and music affect fashion. New synthetic fibers are invented. Hippie style appears. hippie style of the 1960s, a fashion consisting of clothing from the Middle and Far East, bright colors, peasant embroidery, cheesecloth, and safari jackets
What Is Fashion? 29 Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present The 1970s Section 1.2 Disco style appears. disco style of the 1970s, a fashion consisting of gold lam, leopard print, stretch halter jumpsuits, and white clothing that glowed under ultraviolet lighting
What Is Fashion? 30 Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present The 1970s Section 1.2 Punk fashion appears. punk fashion of the 1970s, a style featuring intentionally torn clothing worn by young people with limited income, such as students and the unemployed
What Is Fashion? 31 Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present The 1970s Section 1.2 Feminist movement influences womens styles. feminist movement of the 1970s, the organized effort to establish equal social, economic, and political rights and opportunities for women; influenced womens fashions with shorter hemlines and the pantsuit for the workplace
What Is Fashion? 32 Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present The 1980s Section 1.2 Professional women adopt the power look. Business-casual attire appears. High-quality products become available at moderate prices. Stretchy, synthetic athletic wear becomes popular.
What Is Fashion? 33 Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present The 1990s Section 1.2 Americans begin dressing less formally. Grunge style appears. grunge a style started by the youth culture in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States in the early 1990s; it is messy, uncombed, and disheveled Fashion industry begins to lose the ability to dictate trends.
What Is Fashion? 34 Fashion: 20 th Century to the Present Fashion Today Section 1.2 Consumers make well-informed choices about what to wear, where to shop, and how much to spend on products. Fashion makers and marketers need to be more informed and aware of customer wants and needs.
What Is Fashion? 35 Operating an e-tail business on an electronic channelthe Webcan be costly, due to design, delivery, returns, and operating expenses. Though Many larger dot-com companies crashed in the 1990s, small stores like Harris Cyclery of West Newton, Massachusetts, actually increase sales using a basic Web site. Today, a third of Harriss bicycle business rides in on the Web to get hard-to-find parts and personal service. Describe an e-businesss home page to your class after viewing one through marketingseries.glencoe.com.marketingseries.glencoe.com Historical fashions remind people of a time and place. When Jennifer Lopez launched her new perfume Still, she wanted to attract a more sophisticated consumer than the 15- to 25-year olds who spent $40 million in 2002 on her first scent Glow. Celebrity Fashion History The ad campaign for Still was designed to highlight Jennifer Lopezs movie-star glamour. It featured her in a 1950s Marilyn Monroe dress and curls. The advertising campaign uses all media, including the Internet and Lopezs official Web site, to reach the widest possible market. Section 1.2 For more information, go to marketingseries.glencoe.com.marketingseries.glencoe.com 35
What Is Fashion? 36 1.Define fashion according to retailers. Retailers view fashion as whatever is currently selling. 1.Style is a particular shape or type of apparel item, such as a mini-skirt or Capri pants, identified by the distinct features that make it unique. Style becomes fashion when it becomes popular. 2. The four elements of design include: color, with dimensions of hue, value, and intensity; line, or distinct, elongated marks that direct the path of eye movement; shape, the overall form or outline of a garment; and texture, or how the surface of a material feels and looks. 3.physical needs, psychological needs, and social needs 4. continued Checking Concepts 2.Explain the meaning of style. 3.Discuss the four elements of design. 4.Name three needs satisfied by clothing.
What Is Fashion? 37 5.Identify the materials used to make clothing as early as 20,000 B.C. Early clothing was made of natural products such as fur, animal skin, leaves, and grass. 5.Queen Elizabeth I6.1940s fashion was affected by Hollywood styles, World War II, technological developments such as synthetic fibers, and French designer Christian Dior. 7. continued Checking Concepts 6.Name a person in England who influenced fashion in the 16 th century. 7.Identify some factors that affected fashion in the 1940s.
What Is Fashion? 38 Critical Thinking Checking Concepts 8.Discuss how the feminist movement may have influenced clothing styles in the 1970s. The feminist movement focused on social, economic, and political equality for women, and influenced styles such as shorter skirts and the pantsuit for the workplace. 8.