West African Food Composition Tables

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Table de composition des aliments dAfrique de lOuest

2012

West African Food Composition Table

West African Food Composition Table Table de composition des aliments dAfrique de lOuestBarbara Stadlmayr, U Ruth Charrondiere, Victor N Enujiugha, Romaric G Bayili, Etel G Fagbohoun, Babacar Samb, Paulina Addy, Ingrid Barikmo, Fatimata Ouattara, Arne Oshaug, Isaac Akinyele, George Amponsah Annor, Kennedy Bomfeh, Henrietta EneObong, Ifeyironwa Francisca Smith, Ismael Thiam, Barbara Burlingame

THE FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FAO)Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy

THE INTERNATIONAL NETWORK OF FOOD DATA SYSTEMS (INFOODS) Secretariat at FAOViale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy

THE WEST AFRICAN HEALTH ORGANISATION (WAHO) a specialized Institution of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)Bobo-Dioulasso, 01 BP 153 Bobo-Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso

BIOVERSITY INTERNATIONAL formerly International Plant Genetic Resources InstituteVia dei Tre Denari, 472/a, Maccarese, Rome, Italy

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome 2012

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of FAO. Les appellations employes dans ce produit dinformation et la prsentation des donnes qui y figurent nimpliquent de la part de lOrganisation des Nations Unies pour lalimentation et lagriculture (FAO) aucune prise de position quant au statut juridique ou au stade de dveloppement des pays, territoires, villes ou zones ou de leurs autorits, ni quant au trac de leurs frontires ou limites. La mention de socits dtermines ou de produits de fabricants, quils soient ou non brevets, nentrane, de la part de la FAO, aucune approbation ou recommandation desdits produits de prfrence dautres de nature analogue qui ne sont pas cits. Les opinions exprimes dans ce produit dinformation sont celles du/des auteur(s) et ne refltent pas ncessairement celles de la FAO. ISBN 978-92-5-007207-4 All rights reserved. FAO encourages reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product. Non-commercial uses will be authorized free of charge, upon request. Reproduction for resale or other commercial purposes, including educational purposes, may incur fees. Applications for permission to reproduce or disseminate FAO copyright materials, and all queries concerning rights and licences, should be addressed by e-mail to copyright@fao.org or to the Chief, Publishing Policy and Support Branch Office of Knowledge Exchange, Research and Extension FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy. Tous droits rservs. La FAO encourage la reproduction et la diffusion des informations figurant dans ce produit dinformation. Les utilisations des fins non commerciales seront autorises titre gracieux sur demande. La reproduction pour la revente ou dautres fins commerciales, y compris des fins didactiques, pourra tre soumise des frais. Les demandes dautorisation de reproduction ou de diffusion de matriel dont les droits dauteur sont dtenus par la FAO et toute autre requte concernant les droits et les licences sont adresser par courriel ladresse copyright@fao.org ou au Chef de la Sous-Division des politiques et de lappui en matire de publications, Bureau de lchange des connaissances, de la recherche et de la vulgarisation FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italie. FAO 2012

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Table of contents

Acknowledgements Introduction Food groups Definition and expression of nutrients Cooked foods Documentation, quality and source of data Recommendations for future work Food Composition Table

iv v v vi ix xi xi 1

Annex 1 Index of foods with English, French, Scientific names, and corresponding reference sources Annex 2 Index of foods with French, English, Scientific names and corresponding reference sources Annex 3 Table of Yield factors with corresponding reference sources References

88 111 133 140

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AcknowledgmentsThe authors are very grateful to the West African Health Organization (WAHO/ECOWAS) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) for providing fundings for this compilation. We are also grateful to Florian Stangl for the cover design, and to him and Ruth Charrondiere to provide photos for the cover.

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IntroductionThis edition of the West African Food Composition Table is a revised version of the Food composition table `Composition of Selected foods from West Africa`, which was published in September 2010. It extends and updates the number of foods and values of components through data derived from the Mali Food Composition Table 2004, Nigeria, as well as analytical data from scientific articles. The foods represent average values of the collected compositional data from 9 countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal). Data sources included scientific papers, theses, university reports, as well as food composition databases. These data were supplemented by other sources of food composition data (mostly from outside Africa) to complete the missing values, especially minerals and vitamins. It was intended to have no missing values but for some vitamins, especially vitamin A and E, data were not available and no sources were found from which to derive reliable data. In these cases, they were left blank. Most of the collected data were for raw foods. Nutrient values of cooked foods (mainly boiled foods) were calculated by using the yield factors from Bergstrm (1994), Food Standards Agency (2002 UK6) and Bognr (2002) and the nutrient retention factors from EuroFIR (Vsquez-Caicedo et al., 2008). The present edition includes 472 foods and 28 components. Emphasis was given to include data on food biodiversity by incorporating cultivars/varieties and underutilized foods. For these foods, the country of origin of the cultivar/variety was reported, next to the food name. Analytical data were supplemented with data from other sources which are marked in italics to indicate the difference of quality. The data were compiled according to international standards for food composition and compilation by using the INFOODS food component identifiers (Klensin et al., 1989), the FAO/INFOODS Compilation Tool (available at http://www.fao.org/infoods/software_en.stm) and the compilation process as outlined by Greenfield and Southgate (2003). The User database in Excel format is available on the FAO/INFOODS webpage (http://fao.org/infoods/directory_en.stm).

Food groupsThe foods have been classified in the following food groups: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 Cereals and their products Starchy roots, tubers and their products Legumes and their products Vegetables and their products Fruits and their products Nuts, seeds and their products Meat, poultry and their products Eggs and their products Fish and their products Milk and their products Fat and oils Beverages Miscellaneous

The food codes are composed of the code of the food group and the food code within this group. Foods are listed alphabetically by English name within each food group. The French name of each food is reported next to the English food name in the table. The scientific names of the foods are listed in Annexes 1 and 2.

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Definition and expression of nutrientsAll values, including for beverages and other liquids, are presented per 100 g edible portion. The values per nutrient have been standardized and are expressed in fixed maximal number of decimal points, i.e. no decimal points were added but values with higher decimal points were truncated to the maximal number of decimal points as indicated in the COMPONENT sheet of the Compilation Tool. The values reported are average values derived from foods with the same/similar description that have been compiled in the archival database. Table 1. Nutrients, units and corresponding INFOODS component identifier (per 100 g edible portion)Nutrient Edible portion Energy Water Protein, total Fat, total or if missing total fat value for cereals, then [fat by Soxhlet] Carbohydrate available by difference Fibre, total dietary or if missing then [crude fibre] Ash Calcium Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Zinc Copper Vitamin A (expressed in retinol activity equivalents) Retinol Beta-carotene equivalents or [betacarotene] Vitamin D Vitamin E (in alpha-tocopherol equivalents) or [alpha-tocopherol] Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin B6 Folate Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Unit ratio kJ, kcal g g g g g g mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mcg mcg mcg mcg mg mg mg mg mg mcg mcg mg Analytical/determination method Calculated as the edible portion of the total food as purchased Calculated according to standardized procedure (see below) Drying Calculated with nitrogen conversion factor from analysed total nitrogen (mostly Kjeldahl method) Mixed solvent extraction or [Soxhlet extraction for cereals] 100 - (Water + Protein + Fat + Ash + Fibre + Alcohol) AOAC Prosky method or [Weende method] * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * INFOODS component identifier EDIBLE ENERC WATER PROT (formerly PROTCNT) FAT or [FATCE] CHOAVLDF FIBTG or [FIBC] ASH CA FE MG P K NA ZN CU VITA_R