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Phonetics and Phonology

Group member: Anwar Radhi Cheong Zi Hoong Lee Li Wen

Week 4

SymbolsEach symbol or character in the IPA chart represents one fundamental sound of all languages. 44 phonemic symbols that represent the 26 letters of the English Language alphabet.

Transcription two main types of transcription Phonemic Phonetic transcription


Roach (2010) has defined phonemic transcription as a one to one identification of every speech sound into a phoneme and written with the appropriate symbol. For example, the word put is transcribed as /pt/.

Phonetic transcription Broad transcription Narrow transcription

indicates the more noticeable phonetic features of an utterance or has a little more information than a phonemic transcription.

the transcription of every speech sound with more phonetic detail, either by using specific symbols or by representing some allophonic differences.

Narrow transcription When symbols are used to narrowly transcribe words phonetically, they are placed within square brackets [ ] as the symbols represent precise phonetic values. For example, the word kill will be transcribed as [k] in a narrow phonetic transcription where allophonic details are given. The symbol [k] indicates that it is an allophone (variant) of the phoneme /k/ which is aspirated in initial position.

Narrow transcription Such allophonic details are not required in the broad form of phonetic transcription. For example, the word kill can either be transcribed as /kl/ or /kl/ (with a stress mark) in phonemic transcription.

Symbol Example of word /p/ pin = /p + + n/ /b/ bay = /b + e/ /t/ to = /t + u/ or /t + / /d/ do = /d + u/ or /d + / /k/ key = /k + i:/ /g/ go = /g + / /t/ cheap = /t + i: + p/ /d/ bulge = /b + + l + d / /f/ fee = /f + i: / /v/ veal = /v + i: + l/

Each symbol is listed on the left of the table while a word with letter(s) in bold representing the consonant sound and the phonemic transcription of the word are indicated on the right: Consonants

Symbol Example of word//thick = / + + k/ // then = / + e + n/ // so = /s + / /z/ zoo = /z + u / // show = / + / // beige = /b + e + / /h/ hi = /h + a / /m/ map = /m + + p/ /n/ nap = /n + + p/ // sing = /s + + / /l/ lake = /l + e+ k/ /r/ room = /r + u + m/ /j/ yak = /j + + k/ /w/ win = /w + + n/


Long vowelsShort vowels/i/=heed//=hid/a/=hard//=head//=saw//=had/u/=who//=mud//=heard//=pod//=hood//=the(spoken quickly)



SymbolExample of word/e/say//toy/a/high//cure/o/So /a/How//Here//hair



A triphthong is a glide from one vowel to another and then to a third, all produced rapidly and without interruptions (Roach, 2010).For example:a careful pronunciation of the word our starts with a vowel similar to /:/ which then glides towards the back close rounded area (as represented by the symbol //) then ends with a mid-central vowel (schwa, // ). our is transcribed as /a/.Triphthongs

VowelsThe triphthongs are composed of the 5 closing diphthongs described earlier but they end with a schwa //./e/ + / / = /e/ as in mayor, payer /a/ + / / = /a/ as in tire, dryer // + / / = // as in royal, loyal // + // = // as in buoyant, follower /a/ + / / = /a/ as in sour, flower

Vowel Space

Examples of Articulations of Long Vowels

Examples of Articulations of Short Vowels


Consonants (plosives)

Alveolar ArticulationVelar ArticulationBilabial Articulation

All six plosives can occur at the beginning of a word ( initial position), between other sounds (medial position) and at the end of a word (final position). Bilabial AlveolarVelarVoicelessptkVoicedbdg

Place of Articulation