Water Quality in the Distribution .Distribution System Water Quality Laboratory ¾Hydraulic parameters

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  • Water Quality in the Distribution System

    Syed A. Imran

  • The Drinking Water The Drinking Water ContinuumContinuum

    Drinking Water TreatmentDrinking Water Treatment

    SourcesSourcesGroundwaterSurface WaterSea Water

    Distribution and Collection InfrastructureDistribution and Collection Infrastructure

    Wastewater TreatmentWastewater Treatment

  • What is a Distribution System?

    Photo Courtesy of Jorge Royan

  • Where is our Distribution System?

    You wont see it You wont see it -------- Till its gone!Till its gone!

  • Need for Protection of Distribution System

    Source: Environment Canada

  • What Causes this?

  • Internal Corrosion in Old Iron Pipes

    Passive Film

    Porous Corrosion Scales

    ClCl--Iron (hydro) oxidesIron (hydro) oxides

    OO22 + H+ H22OO

    FeFe2+2+

    OO22 + H+ H22OO

    ClCl-- + H+ H22OO

    ee-- ee--Fe(OH)Fe(OH)++ + + ClCl-- + H+ H++

    Highly Anodic RegionHighly Anodic Region

  • Water Quality Interactions with Pipe Surfaces

    FeFe+2+2 OO22 OHOH--

    OHOH--

    GRGR

    ClCl--

    FeClFeCl22

    NONO33--

    FeOOHFeOOH

    SOSO44--22

    FeSFeS

    HCOHCO33--

    FeCOFeCO33

    ee--AnodeAnode

    CathodeCathode

  • Microbiological (biofilm) Interactions with Pipe Surfaces

    Slime formers & Iron bacteria

    ClCl--

    FeFe2+2+

    OO22FeFeClCl33 Fe(OH)Fe(OH)33

    OHOH-- FeFe2+2+

    FeFe3+3+

    HH22SS

    SRBSRB

    FeFeSS

    GallionellaGallionella

    ThiobacillusThiobacillusFeCOFeCO33

    SOSO4422--

    Highly Anodic RegionHighly Anodic Region

  • A picture is worth

  • TBW groundwater protection targets -How to reconcile new sources with old pipes?

    Before 2002

  • Construction of Pilot Site$ 3,000,0003,000,000 Tailored Collaboration Project

    Tampa Bay WaterAwwaRFUniversity of Central Florida

  • Pilot Distribution System (PDS) Setup

    Nominal length of PDS - 100 feetOld pipes excavated and transported from actual distribution system18 PDS constructed - 14 of which were identical

  • Pilot Distribution System

    Lead and Copper Loops

    Headworks

  • Pilot Water Treatment Processes

    Nanofiltration Unit Coagulation and Settling UnitReverse Osmosis Unit

    Softening and Filtration Units Sludge Drying Bed Field Laboratory

  • Mitigation measures for red water release control

    0

    25

    50

    75

    50 100 150 200 250Alkalinity (mg/L as CaCO3)

    C (C

    PU)

    HRT = 5 days HRT = 2 days

    Alkalinity = 80 mg/L as CaCO3

  • Conflicting Water Quality Impacts on Different Pipe Materials

    Copper Lead ColorAlkalinity

    pH Temperature HRT

    Chlorides Sulfates

  • 0

    20

    40

    60

    00.5

    1

    1.520

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    Definition of blend response [100% RO]

    100% RO

    Apparent Co

    lor Release

    CPU

    Copper Releasemg/L

    Lead

    Rel

    ease

    g/L

    35 CPU0.3 mg/L

    16 g/L

  • 0

    20

    40

    60

    00.5

    1

    1.520

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    Definition of blend response [100% SW]

    100% SW

    Apparent Co

    lor Release

    CPU

    Copper Releasemg/L

    Lead

    Rel

    ease

    g/L

    13 CPU0.4 mg/L

    1 g/L

  • 0

    20

    40

    60

    00.5

    1

    1.520

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    Definition of blend response [100% GW]

    100% GW

    Apparent Co

    lor Release

    CPU

    Copper Releasemg/L

    Lead

    Rel

    ease

    g/L

    2 CPU

    1.2 mg/L

    8 g/L

  • 010

    2030

    40

    00.5

    1

    1.520

    5

    10

    15

    20

    Feasible blends

    100% RO

    100% SW

    100% GW

    Apparent Co

    lor Release

    CPU

    Copper Releasemg/L

    Lead

    Rel

    ease

    g/L

  • Impact of Distribution Pipes on Disinfectant Decay: Bulk Water and Pipe Wall Reactions

    tKKt

    wbeCC )(0.+=

    )eTemperatur Quality, Water Residual,(fKb =

    )Interface ofCondition Material, Pipe Quality, Water Residual,(fKw =

    Kb is the bulk reaction coefficient Kw is the wall reaction coefficient

  • Chlorine vs. Chloramines

    Time

    Res

    idua

    l Dis

    infe

    ctan

    t

    Chlorine (6") Chloramine (6")Chlorine (48") Chloramine (48")

  • Examining the Effect of Water Quality on Integrity of Distribution Infrastructure

    NRC AWWARF Collaborative Project Linking water quality changes to integrity of distribution systems Talking Heads Getting experts together for a 1 Day

    workshop at NRC Ottawa in March 2005

    Development of a Drinking Water Distribution Laboratory at the Center for Sustainable Infrastructure Research (CSIR), Regina

  • Distribution System Water Quality Laboratory

    ~ 20 ft Test Pipe

    Lead

    and

    Cop

    per C

    oupo

    ns

    Water Quality Sensors & Sampling PortsVariable Flow DeviceFlow Control ValvesDirection of Flow

    Chemical Addition PLC Controller

    Data Recorder

    VFD

  • Distribution System Water Quality Laboratory

    Hydraulic parameters can be controlled using VFDs

    Online measurement and data-logging

    Laboratory scale simulation of actual distribution systems

    Test pipes can be changed for different material, age, degree ofcorrosion and locations

    Additional ports for Lead and Copper, biofilms or surface characterization coupons

    Biological control, disinfectant dynamics and persistence of pathogens can be studied

  • Enabling Drinking Water Enabling Drinking Water Sustainability in Small Sustainability in Small CommunitiesCommunitiesNRC 2006 Vision: Science at work for CanadaNRC 2006 Vision: Science at work for Canada

    Support and enable drinking water systems towards self-sufficiency

    Conduct demonstration and verification of emerging technologies

    Develop and sustain innovative methods of maintaining safe drinking water in the distribution systems

    Partner with federal, provincial and local governing bodies to identify and investigate research needs

  • What is the difference between this picture

  • And this?

  • 2424 Hours