WASTE REDUCTION AND MINIMIZATION. CONCEPT HAS SEVERAL COMMON NAMES WASTE MINIMIZATION POLLUTION PREVENTION LOW - NON-WASTE TECHNOLOGIES CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES

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WASTE REDUCTION AND MINIMIZATION Slide 2 CONCEPT HAS SEVERAL COMMON NAMES WASTE MINIMIZATION POLLUTION PREVENTION LOW - NON-WASTE TECHNOLOGIES CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES CLEAN PRODUCTS WASTE REDUCTION DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT Slide 3 APPLICATIONS NEW PROJECTS EXISTING PROCESSES Slide 4 DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT (DFE) CONCEPTS ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES SAVE MONEY CREATE NEW MARKETS PRODUCT PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS REGULATORY COMPLIANCE REDUCE FUTURE LIABILITY RISKS REDUCE TREATMENT COSTS REDUCE WASTE & POLLUTION IMPROVE COMPANY IMAGE Slide 5 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY DEFINITIONS MULTI-DISCIPLINARY FIELD CONSIDERS LINKAGES BETWEEN INDUSTRIAL ECONOMIC SYSTEMS AND NATURAL SYSTEMS EVALUATES USES OF ENERGY, MATERIALS AND VARIOUS TECHNOLOGIES Slide 6 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY GENERIC DEFINITION (BY ALLENBY) Slide 7 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY GENERIC DEFINITION (BY ALLENBY CONTINUED) Slide 8 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY EXAMPLES OF RESEARCH IMPACT OF WATER USE ON DEVELOPMENT ASPECTS OF HEAVY METALS USE IN AGRICULTURE THE IMPACT OF MATERIALS ON INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY Slide 9 ISO (INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDS) 14000 -VOLUNTARY INTERNATIONAL STANDARD OBJECTIVE IS TO SET UP AN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EMS) TO ADDRESS THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THEIR PROCESSES Slide 10 COMPONENTS WITHIN ISO 14000 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (14001,14002, 14004) ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING (14010, 14011, 14012) EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE (14031) ENVIRONMENTAL LABELING (14020, 14021, 14022, 14023, 14024, 14025) LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT (14040, 14041,14042, 14043) Slide 11 OVERALL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT CONCEPT Slide 12 STANDARDS TO BE INCORPORATED IN THE EMS PERFORMANCE ARE MEASURED AGAINST THE OBJECTIVES SET BY THE ORGANIZATION Slide 13 CRITICAL COMPONENTS FOR EMS EMS HAS A CORE SET OF PLANNING ACTIVITIES THAT ENSURES A FACILITY WILL: IDENTIFY FACILITY OPERATIONS, PROCESSES, AND PRODUCTS THAT HAVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS EVALUATE WHICH IMPACTS ARE SIGNIFICANT SET OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS FOR REDUCING NEGATIVE IMPACTS SELECT AND IMPLEMENT ACTIVITIES TO ACHIEVE IDENTIFIED TARGETS Slide 14 EMS OBJECTIVES SYSTEMIC APPLICATION PROMOTES TOP-TO- BOTTOM INTEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS FUNCTIONS, BY REQUIRING: AN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY DEFINED BY TOP MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATION OF OPERATING CONDITIONS AND CONTROLS AND THEIR EFFECT UPON ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS SPECIFIC IDENTIFICATION OF NEEDED AUTHORITIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION PERIODIC MANAGEMENT REVIEW OF SYSTEM RESULTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE Slide 15 EMS OBJECTIVES CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT IS DESIGNED TO CONTINUALLY IMPROVE SYSTEM AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE, THROUGH: CREATION OF SPECIFIC TIMELINES, AUTHORITIES, AND DESIGNATED RESPONSIBILITIES FOR PLAN EXECUTION AND ACTIVITY IMPLEMENTATION PERIODIC COMPLIANCE AUDITS TO IDENTIFY COMPLIANCE PROCEDURE IMPROVEMENTS PERIODIC EMS AUDITS TO ASSESS PROGRESS TOWARDS STATED GOALS AND IDENTIFY NEEDED SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT OF ACTIVITIES RELATED TO ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Slide 16 EMS OBJECTIVES CONFIRMATION OF IMPACT EMS ACTIONS ARE VERIFIABLE, BECAUSE: DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS ENSURE THAT BOTH CONFORMANCE WITH THE STANDARD AND EMS PERFORMANCE CAN BE AUDITED THE ISO CERTIFICATION PROCESS SETS SPECIFIC STANDARDS AND PRACTICES FOR AUDITING BOTH CONFORMANCE WITH THE STANDARD AND PERFORMANCE OF THE EMS Slide 17 LEVELS OF DFE APPLICATION LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS CRADLE TO GRAVE -ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Slide 18 PRIMARY OPPORTUNITIES IN DFE TYPICAL IMPACTS INVESTIGATED INCLUDE A IR, WATER AND SOLID WASTES PRODUCED HAZARD POTENTIAL OF WASTES AND PROCESSES RENEWABLE RESOURCE UTILIZATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY Slide 19 SIMPLER VERSION OF THE LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS TEMPLATE Slide 20 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC GIVEN: PAPER OR PLASTIC WANTED: DETERMINE WHICH OF THESE TWO CONTAINERS HAS THE LEAST NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT. (a) DETERMINE THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY REQUIRED AND THE QUANTITY OF AIR POLLUTION RELEASED FOR PRODUCTION OF 1000 LB PE SACKS AND THE NUMBER OF UNBLEACHED PAPER GROCERY SACKS THAT WILL HOLD THE SAME AMOUNT OF GROCERIES. (b) PLOT THE ENERGY REQUIREMENTS AS A FUNCTION OF RECYCLE RATES FOR EACH MATERIAL. Slide 21 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC WANTED: (continued) (c) SPECIFY THE RELATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THESE TWO PRODUCTS. (d) COMPARE THE AMOUNT OF PETROLEUM REQUIRED TO PROVIDE 10% OF THE ENERGY FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF ONE PAPER SACK. Slide 22 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC BASIS: (1) ASSUME 2.0 PE SACKS ARE USED TO HOLD THE SAME AMOUNT OF GROCERIES AS ONE PAPER SACK. (2)TABLE 1-1 AIR EMISSIONS & ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR PAPER AND PLASTIC (PE) GROCERY SACKS (3) TABLE 1-2 PROFILE OF ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS FOR GROCERY SACKS (EXCLUDING FINAL DISPOSAL) Slide 23 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC TABLE 1-1 AIR EMISSIONS & ENERGY REQUIREMENTS Slide 24 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC TABLE 1-2 -PROFILE OF ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS Slide 25 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC OTHER FACTORS PE MATERIAL AND ENERGY REQUIREMENTS ARE SATISFIED USING A NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE, OIL. MOST OF THE ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR PAPER SACK PRODUCTION ARE MET USING WOOD WASTES. ASSUME 0% RECYCLE OF PLASTIC SACKS AND 1.2 lb PETROLEUM REQUIRED TO MANUFACTURE 1 lb OF PE SACK WHERE THE HEATING VALUE OF PETROLEUM IS 20,000 BTU/lb 1000 LB OF PE YIELDS 60,800 PE SACKS Slide 26 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC TABLE 1-3 SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES FOR LIFE CYCLES Slide 27 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC SOLUTION A SIMILAR SET OF CALCULATIONS IS COMPLETED FOR THE ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANT LEVELS AND FOR PE SACKS. RESULTS ARE SHOWN IN THE FOLLOWING TABLES AND FIGURES.NERGY REQUIREMENTS AND EMISSION RATES - BASIS 1000 lb PE SACKS USE DATA FROM TABLE 1-1. AIR EMISSIONS FOR PAPER SACKS AT SPECIFIED RECYCLE FRACTION: Slide 28 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC SOLUTION CALCULATION SUMMARY TABLE Slide 29 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC SOLUTION Slide 30 Slide 31 Slide 32 RESULTS (c) PE SACKS TEND TO GENERATE LOWER EMISSIONS AND REQUIRE LESS ENERGY THAN PAPER SACKS, EXCEPT AT THE HIGHEST LEVELS OF RECYCLE. THE TYPES OF EMISSIONS ARE NOT THE SAME, WITH PE GENERATING HIGHER QUANTITIES OF HYDROCARBONS AND PAPER SACKS GENERATING MORE NOx AND MORE SO2. THIS ANALYSIS DOES NOT INCLUDE ANY EMISSIONS FROM DISPOSAL EITHER IN LANDFILL OR INCINERATION TO COMPLETE THE LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS. Slide 33 EXAMPLE OF LCA - PAPER OR PLASTIC SOLUTION RESULTS (d) FROM THE STANDPOINT OF OIL CONSUMPTION, THE PAPER SACKS TEND TO REQUIRE LESS OIL DUE TO THE AVAILABILITY OF FUEL IN THE FORM OF WOOD WASTES. NOTE: AS A OPTION, CONSIDER REUSABLE GROCERY SACKS THESE ARE MADE FROM NYLON, JUTE, COTTON STRING, ETC. MAY BE REUSED HUNDREDS OF TIMES THESE REQUIRE ABOUT 10 - 20 TIMES THE ENERGY AND GENERATE 10 - 20 TIMES THE AIR POLLUTION AS PAPER OR PE SO MUST BE USED AT LEAST 20 TIMES TO HAVE A POSITIVE IMPACT. Slide 34 DFE TOOLS AND PROCEDURES OPPORTUNITIES WITHIN THE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES MATERIALS SUBSTITUTION REDUCE QUANTITIES OF PROCESS WASTES BY WASTE SEGREGATION REVISED CONTROL METHODS REVISED PROCESSING METHODS RECYCLING A MATERIAL RATHER THAN DISPOSAL Slide 35 MATERIALS SUBSTITUTION REDUCE TOXICITY OF PROCESS COMPONENTS POLAROID CHANGE OF DYE -1987 REDUCED TOXICITY -REPLACED Cr(VI) COMPOUND REDUCED PROCESS WASTES BY 80% IMPROVED FILM PERFORMANCE REDUCED ANNUAL DISPOSAL COSTS BY $1 MILLION (1987$) Slide 36 MATERIALS SUBSTITUTION NAVY REPLACEMENT OF SOLVENT FOR PAINT REMOVAL FROM PLANES WITH PLASTIC BEADS FROM HIGH PRESSURE HOSES ELIMINATES NEED TO USE METHYLENE CHLORIDE ELIMINATES TOXIC WASTE AS BEADS ARE RECYCLED COST SAVINGS ~$24,000 PER PLANE (1995$) Slide 37 REDUCE QUANTITIES OF PROCESS WASTES BY WASTE SEGREGATION GENERAL JUSTIFICATIONS Slide 38 REDUCE QUANTITIES OF PROCESS WASTES BY WASTE SEGREGATION ACME-UNITED CONCENTRATION OF NI SALTS IN PLATING SOLUTION USING REVERSE OSMOSIS Slide 39 REDUCE QUANTITIES OF PROCESS WASTES BY WASTE SEGREGATION ACME-UNITED CONCENTRATION OF NI SALTS IN PLATING SOLUTION USING REVERSE OSMOSIS CONCENTRATED NI SALT SOLUTION RECYCLED TO PLATING TANK REDUCED QUANTITY OF SLUDGE PRODUCED BY 80% REDUCED RAW MATERIALS COSTS BY 94% SAVES AT LEAST $40,000/YEAR (1986$) FROM REDUCTION IN WASTE DISPOSAL COSTS AND RAW MATERIALS COSTS CAPITAL COST FOR SYSTEM ~$62,000 Slide 40 REDUCE QUANTITIES OF PROCESS WASTES BY WASTE SEGREGATION SNAP-ON TOOLS RECYCLING A RINSEWATER STREAM USING ULTRAFILTRATION AND ION EXCHANGE REMOVED LOW-LEVEL (