Concept Waste Minimization

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Concept Waste Minimization (Bahan Kuliah Teknologi Bersih)

Text of Concept Waste Minimization

  • PRODUKSI BERSIHKatharina OginawatiKatharina Oginawati

  • PRODUKSI BERSIHKatharina OginawatiDepartmen Teknik LingkunganInstitut Teknologi Bandung

  • PendahuluanLandasan Pengembangan & Penerapan Produksi Bersih Undang-undang Nomor 23 Tahun 1997; Pasal 10, butir e : mengembangkan dan menerapkan perangkat yang bersifat preemtif, preventif dan proaktif dalam upaya pencegahan penurunan daya dukung dan daya tampung lingkungan hidup.

    Perangkat pengelolaan lingkungan yang bersifat preemtif, preventif dan proaktif antara lain adalah PRODUKSI BERSIH.

    Produksi Bersih telah dikembangkan oleh Bapedal sejak tahun 1993. Pengembangan dan penerapannya dapat menjadi landasan peningkatan kinerja pengelolaan lingkungan, penerapan Sistem Manajemen Lingkungan hingga sertifikasi Ekolabel.

    Tahun 1995 dicanangkan Komitmen Nasional Penerapan Produksi Bersih. Tahun 1996 Bapedal menyusun Rencana Aksi Penerapan Produksi Bersih. Tahun 2003, KLH menerbitkan Kebijakan Nasional penerapan produksi Bersih.

  • Produksi BersihUpaya penerapan yang kontinyu pada suatu strategi pengelolaan lingkungan yang intergral dan preventif terhadap proses, produk, dan jasa untuk meningkatkan eco-efisiensi dan mengurangi terjadinya resiko terhadap manusia dan lingkungan

  • Pengertian Teknologi BersihUNEP : Strategi pengelolaan lingkungan yangbersifat preventif dan terpadu yang diterapkansecara terus menerus pada proses produksi,produk dan jasa sehingga meningkatkan ekoefisiensi dan mengurangi terjadinya resikoterhadap manusia dan lingkungan

    Mencakup upaya peningkatan efesiensi dan efektifitasdalam pemakaian bahan baku, energi dan sumber dayalainnya sehingga mengurangi penggunaan bahanberbahaya dan beracun sehingga mengurangi jumlahdan toksisitas seluruh limbah dan emisi yangdikeluarkan sebelum meninggalkan proses

  • Mengapa Produksi Bersih? Penekanan Biaya : Produk End of pipe Menjaga kesehatan Pembersihan Lingkungan Produksi bersih dapat dilakukan dengan: Penerapan know-how? Perbaikan teknologi Pelibatan pelaku manajemen

  • Pengelolaan LingkunganPrinsip Pencegahan pencemaranPengendalian pencemaranRemediasi

  • Penerapan Strategi Produksi BersihProsesBahan BakuLimbah diperlukanLimbahBahan pembantu, Energi, air dllLimbah merupakan pertanda adanya ketidak-efisienan suatu proses

  • Tingkatan dalam pengelolaan limbah1. Pencegahan2. Pengurangan3. Penggunaan kembali dalam proses4. Penggunaan kembali di luar proses5. Pengolahan6. Penguburan ???

  • integrated waste management hierarchySomppi, JL,1998

  • Program 6RRefine, memurnikan atau menghilangkan kontaminan dari bahan baku atau bahan pembantuReduce, mengurangi kebutuhan bahan baku secara stokiometri proses sehingga mengurangi limbahReuse, pemakaian kembali bahan baku/pembantu proses untuk proses yang serupaRecycle, pemakaian kambali bahan baku/pembantu dan hasil samping proses untuk proses yang berbedaRecovery, pengambilan kembali material yg masih memiliki nilai tambahRetrive to Energi, merubah material sisa proses menjadi sumber energi

  • Penerapan Teknologi BersihDigalakan di negara yang sudah berkembangPengkajian di negara sedang berkembangDi berbagai industri, diantaramya industri logam, pulp dan kertas, tekstil, dan industri yang menghasilkan B3 lainnya

  • Case study in paper manufacture1. About Company Name: Scott Limited Number of employee: 1,200 Product: tissue paper Productivity: 100,000 ton/year2. Background Raw material: wood pulps, recycled waste paper Operation: dilute suspension is filtered through a mesh belt Waste problem: pulp lost in liquid effluent high suspendedsolids

  • Paper Fibre and Water recovery3. Alternatives upgrading effluent treatment plat installing novel recovery stage upstream4. Clean Technology Install Dissolved Air Flotation System to recover more fibre and water

  • * Economic benefits end of pipe treatment : f 1 millionResults - Case study installation cost : f 2 million* Advantages reusable clarified water recovered SS lowIn any eventInvestment in clean tech : f 1 millionPayback time : app. 5 years fibre reclaimed process simpleno extra operating staff

  • WASTE MINIMIZATIONKatharina OginawatiDepartment of Environmental EngineeringInstitute Technology of Bandung

  • Why Waste Minimization?

  • What is Waste Minimization ?What else in Detail ?To prevent the generation of waste at its point of originIt is integrating environmental constraintsin the production unitsIt is the use of materials, processes or practices that reduceor eliminate the creation of pollutants or wastes at the sourcesIt is the use of practices that reduce the use of hazardousand non-hazardous materials, energy, water or other resources

  • Benefit of Waste MinimizationEcologically & Economically1. Environmental Protection2. Improvement of working conditions3. Saving raw materials4. Saving energy5. Improving quality of product

  • IncentivesGetting Management Plan and CommitmentEconomic Reduce waste management costs Improve operation Reduce liability risks Increased competitive advantageCompliance with regulationsReduction in liabilities associated with wasteImprove public imageReduced environmental impact

  • Benefits Reduces Risk of Liability Reduces Operating Costs Improved Company Image Reduces Risk of LiabilityBy reducing the volume and potential toxicityof waste generatedMaterial costs, waste management and disposal costs,production costs, energy costsBy providing a safe environmentBy reducing ecological damage due to raw materialextraction and refining operations

  • How should Waste Minimization be? Not adversely impact product quality or marketability Offer cost benefits, at least in the long run Readily transferable to other industries Technological achievability

  • How to Waste Minimization?

  • General Techniques for Sources Reduction

  • Techniques for Recovery & Recycle

  • Comparing Various Methods

  • Waste Minimization ProgramWhy are we implementing ?We want to protect our environmentWhat will be done ?We will reduce or eliminate amounts of all types waste, andimprove energy efficiencyWho will implement ?Everyone will be involved

  • Obstacle to Minimum Waste ReductionPoliticalFinancialTechnical

  • When do people feel committedto Waste Minimization program ?If they are ENCOURAGED to: Help define company goals and objectives Review processes/operations to find where and how toxic/hazardous substances & wastes are used and generated Recommend ways to eliminate wastes at source Design/modify forms and records to monitor materials used and wasted Think of ways to acknowledge and reward employee contribution to the waste minimization effort

  • Preparing Program

  • Issues on Developing and ImplementingWaste Minimization ProgramSite reviews : Supplement and explain existing data Good planning : Essential for efficient site reviewsLook at procedure as they are performed in the production environmentNormalization factors: * Units produced * Hours of labour * Hours of productionIdentify waste sourcesMaterial balance: Reveals quantities lost to emission or to accumulation in equipmentExpertise of a variety of people : Required for technical evaluationCost/Benefits of Waste Minimization : be quantified

  • Issues on Implementing PhaseJustify projects & obtain fundings, Consider tangible and intangible benefits Waste minimization programme should compete with other profit- making project alternatives on the basis of cost-effectivenessInstall/Modify equipment: * Operational * Procedural * Material changesWaste minimization is a continuing program, not an one-time effortImplement new procedures: As a result of process modification or installation of new equipmentEvaluate Performance of Program:* Project management cost * Public image* Operation * Environment quality* Liability risks * Product quality* Competition advantage Program should reflect improvements in: Result must be measured and evaluated

  • Talking and reporting are essential Reports should be communicated to all employees through written announcement and meetings Classroom interaction generates ideas Advanced training Show employees their ideas are welcome Good suggestions should be put into practice & recognizedIssues in Maintaining the Program

  • Sampai Jumpa LagiPileuleuyan