Walking Gait Cycle Walking Gait Cycle - 60:40 stance to swing phase Walking Gait Cycle - 60:40 stance to swing phase Stance Phase: (IC) LR – MS – TST –

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  • Slide 1
  • Walking Gait Cycle Walking Gait Cycle - 60:40 stance to swing phase Walking Gait Cycle - 60:40 stance to swing phase Stance Phase: (IC) LR MS TST PSW Stance Phase: (IC) LR MS TST PSW LR beginning of 1st double support phase LR beginning of 1st double support phase MS foot is in full contact adapting to envt, beginning of single support, which is of equal beginning of single support, which is of equal duration of contralateral swing phase duration of contralateral swing phase TST foot is preparing to toe off (TO) TST foot is preparing to toe off (TO) PSW 2 nd double support phase Swing Phase: begins with TO and ends w/ IC ISW MSW - TSW ISW MSW - TSW
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  • Running vs. Walking Gait Cycles The Running Gait Cycle has a temporal reversal of Stance:Swing phases (40:60) as compared to Walking Gait Cycle (60:40); the stance phase during sprinting may be as low as 22% of cycle The Running Gait Cycle has a temporal reversal of Stance:Swing phases (40:60) as compared to Walking Gait Cycle (60:40); the stance phase during sprinting may be as low as 22% of cycle Stance Phase: Absorption (Mid stance) Propulsion Swing Phase: ISW (75%) (MSW) - TSW (25%) Running Gait two periods of double float in swing; refers to when neither foot is in contact w/ the ground; at the beginning and at the end of each running swing phase Walking Gait two double support periods in stance
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  • Float vs. Support
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  • Running Gait Cycle Step length IC of one foot to IC of the 2 nd foot Step length IC of one foot to IC of the 2 nd foot Stride length IC of 1 st foot to IC of the same foot Stride length IC of 1 st foot to IC of the same foot Cadence number of steps in a given time; on average about 100-122 steps/min with females averaging about 6-9 s/m higher Cadence number of steps in a given time; on average about 100-122 steps/min with females averaging about 6-9 s/m higher As running Velocity increases, there is an initial increase in step length, followed by increased cadence As running Velocity increases, there is an initial increase in step length, followed by increased cadence Stride length is limited by runners leg length, height, and ability; generally the longer the stride, the higher the velocity Stride length is limited by runners leg length, height, and ability; generally the longer the stride, the higher the velocity When optimum stride length is attained; further velocity increases will come from increased cadence When optimum stride length is attained; further velocity increases will come from increased cadence
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  • Kinematics Kinematics of Walking and Running are much different Kinematics of Walking and Running are much different There is an increase in joint ROM with increasing velocity There is an increase in joint ROM with increasing velocity Virtually no difference is found in the transverse and frontal plane kinematics; with most of the difference occurring in the sagittal plane Virtually no difference is found in the transverse and frontal plane kinematics; with most of the difference occurring in the sagittal plane Lower C of GLower C of G Increased speed due to increased flexion of hips and knees; and increased dorsiflexion of the ankleIncreased speed due to increased flexion of hips and knees; and increased dorsiflexion of the ankle
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  • Knee Kinematics of Running The knee demonstrates increased flexion with increasing velocity, but as seen with the hip, extension decreases The knee demonstrates increased flexion with increasing velocity, but as seen with the hip, extension decreases Absorption phase of the stance phase sees knee flexion to accommodate ground reactive forces; walking only requires about 10 deg of flexion vs.35 during running Absorption phase of the stance phase sees knee flexion to accommodate ground reactive forces; walking only requires about 10 deg of flexion vs.35 during running Max knee flexion occurs at MS, after IC, during the absorption phase; this is followed sequentially by knee ext; max knee flexion during walking occurs just after TO Max knee flexion occurs at MS, after IC, during the absorption phase; this is followed sequentially by knee ext; max knee flexion during walking occurs just after TO Avg. Knee ROM is 63 deg during Running and 60 deg during walking; the major difference is that max flexion during walking only reaches an avg. of 64 deg, whereas during running it reaches an avg. of 79 deg.; conversely, knee extension is on average, 10 degrees less during running than during walking Avg. Knee ROM is 63 deg during Running and 60 deg during walking; the major difference is that max flexion during walking only reaches an avg. of 64 deg, whereas during running it reaches an avg. of 79 deg.; conversely, knee extension is on average, 10 degrees less during running than during walking (-16 deg. vs -6 deg). (-16 deg. vs -6 deg).
  • Slide 7
  • Hip Kinematics of Running Flexion of the hip increases, as extension of the hip actually decreases with increasing velocity Flexion of the hip increases, as extension of the hip actually decreases with increasing velocity One study of walking found overall ROM of 43 deg, with 37 deg of flexion and 6 deg of ext; this study also found an increased ROM during running, with overall ROM averaging 46 deg, all of which was hip flexion with the hip never reaching neutral (negative extension)One study of walking found overall ROM of 43 deg, with 37 deg of flexion and 6 deg of ext; this study also found an increased ROM during running, with overall ROM averaging 46 deg, all of which was hip flexion with the hip never reaching neutral (negative extension) Max hip ext occurs at TO; Max hip flex occurs at TSWMax hip ext occurs at TO; Max hip flex occurs at TSW
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  • Ankle and Foot Kinematics Ankle joint primary plantar/dorsiflexor Ankle joint primary plantar/dorsiflexor Foot joints including subtalar, oblique midtarsal, longitudinal midtarsal and 5 th ray; provide for tri- planar pronation/supination Foot joints including subtalar, oblique midtarsal, longitudinal midtarsal and 5 th ray; provide for tri- planar pronation/supination Pronation dorsiflexion/eversion/abductionPronation dorsiflexion/eversion/abduction Supination plantarflexion/inversion/adductionSupination plantarflexion/inversion/adduction Metatarsalphalangeal joints (MTP) are biplanar mostly dorsiflexion/plantarflexion w/ some abd/add Metatarsalphalangeal joints (MTP) are biplanar mostly dorsiflexion/plantarflexion w/ some abd/add
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  • Foot Osteology
  • Slide 10
  • Ankle and Foot Kinematics cont. Walking: ankle plantarflexes after IC and during LR, followed by dorsiflexion at MS; overall ROM is approx. 30 deg (18 plantarflex/12dorsiflex) Walking: ankle plantarflexes after IC and during LR, followed by dorsiflexion at MS; overall ROM is approx. 30 deg (18 plantarflex/12dorsiflex) Running: overall ankle ROM of 50 deg; Running: overall ankle ROM of 50 deg; At IC (rearfoot in most), ankle undergoes rapid dorsiflexion during absorption (pronation)At IC (rearfoot in most), ankle undergoes rapid dorsiflexion during absorption (pronation) Supination is limited due to diminished time of plantarflexion, and pronation is increasedSupination is limited due to diminished time of plantarflexion, and pronation is increased May lead to excessive pronation injuriesMay lead to excessive pronation injuries Running shoes or orthotics may limit this excessive pronation, and allow for more supination, and thus a more rigid foot for propulsionRunning shoes or orthotics may limit this excessive pronation, and allow for more supination, and thus a more rigid foot for propulsion A pronated subtalar joint allows the foot to become the mobile adapter; whereas a supinated subtalar joint serves to lock the midtarsal joints, creating a rigid lever to better serve propulsionA pronated subtalar joint allows the foot to become the mobile adapter; whereas a supinated subtalar joint serves to lock the midtarsal joints, creating a rigid lever to better serve propulsion
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  • Overpronation
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  • Windlass Mechanism The plantar fascia and the intrinsic foot muscles increase the efficiency of propulsion by providing spring- like support to the medial arch of the foot, helping to deliver the foot into supination, and contributing an elastic tension.
  • Slide 13
  • Windlass Mechanism (cont.)
  • Slide 14
  • Lower Extremity Kinematics of Running At IC, the pelvis, femur and tibia begin to internally rotate; int. rotation lasts through LR until MS; this everts and unlocks the subtalar joint, oblique and longitudinal midtarsal joints and in turn absorbs shock (pronation) At IC, the pelvis, femur and tibia begin to internally rotate; int. rotation lasts through LR until MS; this everts and unlocks the subtalar joint, oblique and longitudinal midtarsal joints and in turn absorbs shock (pronation) External Rotation of the pelvis, femur and tibia begin following MS, causing inversion and subtalar and mid foot locking, creating the rigid lever for propulsion External Rotation of the pelvis, femur and tibia begin following MS, causing inversion and subtalar and mid foot locking, creating the rigid lever for propulsion All lower extremity joints work together during walking/running to provide a biomechanically efficient means of locomotion All lower extremity joints work together during walking/running to provide a biomechanically efficient means of locomotion These joints depend on each other and upon muscular action to carry out walking