Victors in Chains: Greek Resistance, 1942-3by Amyntor

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Victors in Chains: Greek Resistance, 1942-3 by Amyntor Review by: William Miller The American Historical Review, Vol. 49, No. 3 (Apr., 1944), pp. 477-478 Published by: Oxford…

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Victors in Chains: Greek Resistance, 1942-3 by Amyntor Review by: William Miller The American Historical Review, Vol. 49, No. 3 (Apr., 1944), pp. 477-478 Published by: Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Historical Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1841048 . Accessed: 25/06/2014 01:19 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. . Oxford University Press and American Historical Association are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The American Historical Review. http://www.jstor.org This content downloaded from 91.229.229.44 on Wed, 25 Jun 2014 01:19:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=oup http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=aha http://www.jstor.org/stable/1841048?origin=JSTOR-pdf http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp Amyntor: Victors in Chains 477 ment of the Parthenon was not repeated, but his Hanoverian gunner, who fired the shot, had descendants. The pluck of the king, whom "the Germans regarded as their chief enemy," during the Cretan retreat is justly extolled, and the heroism of the Cretans, including the women, occasions an accurate summary of "the great Greek island's" stormy history, from which, however, "the Great Rebellion" of i866-69 is omitted. Greece's heroic resistance delayed Hitler's Russian cam- paign, Crete perhaps saved Cyprus, and there was a great "moral impression made upon American opinion." The appendix shows "The New Greek Forces at War" outside Greece, com- prising men from twenty to thirty-six, a special corps formed in the United States, the "Sacred Band" in Palestine, the navy, and mercantile marine. Such is what the author modestly calls a provisional attempt to present an outline of the story. Durban, South Africa WILLIAM MILLER VICTORS IN CHAINS: GREEK RESISTANCE, I942-3. By Amyntor. (Lon- don: Hutchinson and Company. I943. Pp. 8o. 3s.6d.) THIS little book, published by authority of the Greek Ministry of Information and probably written by the minister, Mr. Michalopoulos, who graduated at Oriel College, Oxford, and writes English perfectly, contains the history of enslaved Greece, as far as it is possible, and forms, therefore, a sequel to Mr. Compton Mackenzie's work. Its text is: "Greece is an occupied country but its people are undefeated." It describes the guerrilla warfare, especially in Crete and the moun- tains of the mainland, train wrecking at Drama and Larissa, fires, and sabotage, despite the discouragement of the archbishop, who was deposed for cursing the German military commander for shooting hostages. Italian casualties have been I,200 monthly, but the Germans, who admitted that "they have never come across such stubborn opposition as in Greece," are more drastic in reprisals than the Italians. A "Greek summed up the attitude of the ordinary civilians in these words: 'towards Germans intense hatred, towards Italians intense contempt.'" Worst of all are the Bulgarians in Thrace and Macedonia, who, wishing to retain those provinces after the war, have executed priests who refused to conduct the services in Bulgarian, closed Salonika Univer- sity, and dismissed all schoolmasters who would not teach in that language. The Italians made Italian the second language taught in schools and issued official history books, compiled on fascist lines. Athens University has been closed indefinitely, but the students, always active in political movements, have continued demonstrations, despite the admonitions of the Greek Quisling, who also in vain asked the people "not to listen to Allied broadcasts." Public meetings were held in shelters during air raids; "AMera," the warcry of the Evzones, was chalked up on walls. "The Greeks will not work for the Germans even if faced with famine." Wide areas lie fallow and the food This content downloaded from 91.229.229.44 on Wed, 25 Jun 2014 01:19:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp 478 Reviews of Books shortage has been further increased by the arrival of refugees from Bulgaria's "Aegean colony," whence seventy thousand were expelled. Especially heroic is the historic attitude of the women, who produced a Greek Joan of Arc in the War of Independence. As always, the church has been a "centre of resistance," while six clandestine newspapers are published, a facsimile of one of which, MaX%otv-i 'EXXdg, "Fighting Greece," forms one of the fifteen illustrations of this book. The surviving eighteen public journals are obliged to write what the Axis leaders wish, but "the spirit of Aristophanes seems to inspire the journalists." All radio sets outside Athens have been confiscated, and listeners to London and Cairo broadcasts shot. But a well-known Dodecanesian speaks to them from Cairo. Still greater risks are taken by Greeks giving secret hospitality to British soldiers left behind after the evacuation and assisting them to find boats in which to escape, as many have escaped, especially from Chios. We are told that some Axis officials "have their price." The conclusion of this interesting study is that "the Greek people have no doubt about ultimate victory for the cause which has been their own through so many centuries." Durban, South Africa WILLIAM MILLER THE FIGHT OF THE NORWEGIAN CHURCH AGAINST NAZISM. By Bjarne H6ye and Trygve M. Ager. (New York: Macmillan Company. 1943. Pp. i8o. $I.75.) THEY CAME AS FRIENDS. By Tor Myklebost. Translated by Trygve M. Ager. (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran and Company. 1943. Pp. xii, 297. $2.50.) THE present struggle in Norway has produced quite a shelfful of books, each of which throws light on some phase of the Norwegian opposition to Nazism. The political maturity of the people and the fundamental unity, which for the time being has pushed all lesser differences into the background, have enabled the Norwegians to maintain opposition to Nazification with a clearheaded con- sistency that has been unsurpassed. The church was the first to organize a home front and has throughout the past three years taken the lead in Norway's fight. The Fight of the Norwegian Church against Nazism relates the story of this struggle step by step. The church rose from strength to strength in face of per- secution. To quote Bishop Einar Berggrav, the primate of the church, "When the truth becomes something sacred for us it is then that it can create martyrs" (p. 29). The translation is far from happy. The church people and also the small dissenting religious groups responded with magnificent loyalty as terrorism welded the people firmly together and taught them to value their institutions. But it is not only the courage of martyrs that has given Berggrav and the other church leaders their influence. Every step taken has been justified by proclamation This content downloaded from 91.229.229.44 on Wed, 25 Jun 2014 01:19:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp Article Contents p. 477 p. 478 Issue Table of Contents The American Historical Review, Vol. 49, No. 3 (Apr., 1944), pp. i-ii+393-608 Front Matter [pp. ] Arnold, Aristocracy, and America [pp. 393-409] Theodoric vs. Boethius: Vindication and Apology [pp. 410-426] Thurlow Weed: A Character Study [pp. 427-440] Notes and Suggestions The National Archives Faces the Future [pp. 441-445] Why the March to Concord? [pp. 446-454] Reviews of Books General History Review: untitled [pp. 455] Review: untitled [pp. 456] Review: untitled [pp. 457-459] Review: untitled [pp. 459-461] Review: untitled [pp. 461-462] Review: untitled [pp. 462-463] Review: untitled [pp. 463-464] Ancient and Medieval History Review: untitled [pp. 464-465] Review: untitled [pp. 465-466] Review: untitled [pp. 466-468] Review: untitled [pp. 468] Modern European History Review: untitled [pp. 469-470] Review: untitled [pp. 470-471] Review: untitled [pp. 471-472] Review: untitled [pp. 472-474] Review: untitled [pp. 474-475] Review: untitled [pp. 475] Review: untitled [pp. 476-477] Review: untitled [pp. 477-478] Review: untitled [pp. 478-480] Far Eastern History Review: untitled [pp. 480-481] Review: untitled [pp. 481-482] American History Review: untitled [pp. 482-483] Review: untitled [pp. 483-485] Review: untitled [pp. 485-486] Review: untitled [pp. 486-487] Review: untitled [pp. 487-488] Review: untitled [pp. 488-490] Review: untitled [pp. 490-491] Review: untitled [pp. 491-492] Review: untitled [pp. 492-494] Review: untitled [pp. 494-495] Review: untitled [pp. 495-496] Review: untitled [pp. 497-498] Review: untitled [pp. 498-499] Review: untitled [pp. 499-500] Review: untitled [pp. 500-501] Review: untitled [pp. 501-502] Review: untitled [pp. 502-504] Review: untitled [pp. 504-506] Review: untitled [pp. 506-507] Review: untitled [pp. 508-509] Review: untitled [pp. 509-510] Review: untitled [pp. 510-511] Review: untitled [pp. 511-512] Review: untitled [pp. 512-513] Review: untitled [pp. 513-515] Review: untitled [pp. 515-516] Review: untitled [pp. 516-518] Review: untitled [pp. 518-519] Other Recent Publications [pp. 520-563] Historical News [pp. 564-608]