of 1 /1
347 the previous quinquennium. These increases are shown by Dr. Dudfield to be 12 per cent. for the second year, 21 per cent. for the third year, 70 per cent. for the fourth year, and 7 per cent. for the fifth year. We now turn to the administration section of the report. The author says : " The need of inspection for the discovery and remedy of sanitary defects was greater at the end of 1918 than it had ever been before." The report describes the flooding with sewage caused by the rainfalls of June 16th and June 28th, 1917, at the rate of 1’04 inches and 0’75 inch per hour respectively. The smaller number of children of school age found on the canal boats seems to indicate that their education is receiving more attention. In Paddington, as elsewhere, the black smoke nuisance was left alone during the war owing to the bad class of fuel available, and to the skilled stokers being wanted for the services. As dense black smoke from chimneys serving boiler furnaces is quite unnecessary, it is much to be hoped that this neglected matter will be taken up in all parts of the country with vigour. Dr. Dudfield points to the need for a much more close inspection of the tenement houses-the bugbear of sanitary reformers in every town-and for the resumption of the " annual cleansings." The report on the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts shows the extremely unsatisfactory state of the milk-supply. The percentage of adulterated samples taken at the railway stations ranged from 40 to 50 during the war years. The position of the " preservatives in foods " question is pointed out, and examples are given of sausages with over 11 gr. of boric acid per lb., lime-juice cordial containing over 11 gr. per pint of salicylic acid, brawn with over 11 gr. per lb. of boric acid, &c., and it is suggested that the legislature should settle when (if at all), and in what quantities, these additions to food should be permissible. We look forward with interest to Dr. Dudfield’s second volume dealing with the two post-war years. URBAN VITAL STATISTICS. (Week ended Feb. 5th, 1921.) English and Welsh Towns,-In the 96 English and Welsh towns, with an aggregate population estimated at 18 million persons, the annual rate of mortality, which bad been 12-8, 13-3, and 12’3 in the three- preceding weeks, rose to 13’1 per 1000. In London, with a population of 4 million persons, the death-rate was 13-3, or 1’7 per 1000 above that recorded in the previous week, while among the remaining towns the rates ranged from 5’8 in Rotherham, 6’5 in Acton, and 6’9 in Cambridge, to 20’1 in Warrington, 20-7 in West Hartlepool, and 26-8 in Tynemouth. The principal epidemic diseases caused 238 deaths, which corresponded to an annual rate of 0-7 per 1000, and comprised 82 from infantile diarrhaea, 65 from diphtheria, 56 from whooping-cough, 19 from measles, 14 from scarlet fever, and 2 from enteric fever. Whooping-cough caused a death-rate of 2-0 in Warrington and 2-3 in Wigan, and diphtheria of 1-9 in Ilford. There were 4018 cases of scarlet fever, 2767 of diphtheria, and 1 of small-pox under treat- ment in the Metropolitan Asylums Hospitals and the London Fever Hospital, against 4171, 2682, and 1 respec- tively at the end of the previous week. The causes of 36 of the 4649 deaths in the 96 towns were uncertified, of which 12 were registered in Birmingham, and 3 each in London, West Bromwich, and Leicester. Scottish Tozvns.-In the 16 largest Scottish towns, with an aggregate population estimated at nearly 2 million persons, the annual rate of mortality, which had been 15-9, 15-8, and 16-3 in the three preceding weeks, fell to 14-9 per 1000. The 307 deaths in Glasgow corresponded to an annual rate of 14-5 per 1000, and included 16 from whooping-cough, 9 from infantile diarrhoea, 4 from diphtheria, and 1 from scarlet fever. The 148 deaths in Edinburgh were equal to a rate of 17-3 per 1000, and included 2 each from scarlet fever, diphtheria, and infantile diarrhoea, and 1 from measles. lrish Towns.--The 114 deaths in Dublin corresponded to an annual rate of 14-1, or 1’7 per 1000 below that recorded in the previous week, and included 3 from diphtheria, 2 from infantile diarrhoea, and 1 from scarlet fever. The 114 deaths in Belfast were equal to a rate of 14-2 per 1000, and included 6 from whooping-cough, 2 from diphtheria, and 1 from infantile diarrhoea. The Services. THE ARMY DENTAL CORPS. AT the outbreak of war there was no adequate provision for dental services to the troops, and this was keenly felt by those forming the original Expeditionary Force. The need for such service was early recognised by those in authority, and in October, 1914, a commencement was made by the appointment of six dental surgeons. With the growth of the Army the dental service was increased, and at the time of the armistice commissions were held by over 800 dental surgeons. It is universally acknowledged that the work of these officers added to the efficiency of the forces, and with the return of the Army to a peace basis the Government has wisely decided to form an Army Dental Corps. The number of officers has not been stated, but we feel sure with the experience gained in the war an adequate service will be provided. It is possible that when these data are forthcoming there will be some who consider the number insufficient, but in any criticism that may be offered due consideration should be taken of the difference between an Army on a war or a peace basis. In peace time the medical examination is more search- ing, and only those dentally fit or able to be easily rendered dentally fit are accepted. Further, we believe that there is an Army Order stating that no man requiring dentures can be recruited. Under these conditions the appointment of one officer for each 2000 men should be sufficient. The rank of officers in the corps is to range from lieutenant to lieutenant-colonel and the pay, although on a slightly lower scale than that of the Royal Army Medical Corps, should be sufficient to attract the right type of officer. The formation of an Army Dental Corps is a distinct step in the right direction, and no doubt a scheme will gradually be evolved for its rapid expansion in the event of war. Provision will be needed for the Territorials and for a reserve of officers. Arrangements will, we assume, be made to enlist the services of the dental schools with their well-equipped laboratories. - ROYAL NAVAL MEDICAL SERVICE. The following appointments have been notified: Surg.-Cmdrs. J. H. Lightfoot to Co7a-zceor, J. Boyan to Defiance, C. T. Baxter to .P)’<*st<Mt, additional, for R.N. Recruiting Headquarters. Surg. Lieut.-Cmdr. F. C. Wright to Birmingham. Surg.-Lieuts. F. L. H. MacDowel to Haulbowline Hospital and Dockyard, and J. C. Brown to Special R.M. Battalion. ARMY MEDICAL SERVICE. Col. S. L. Cummins retires on retired pay. TERRITORIAL FORCE. Major Sir R. Jones, from 1st Western General Hospital, to be Colonel, and to be granted the honorary rank of Major-General. ROYAL ARMY MEDICAL CORPS. Lieut.-Col. P. S. Lelean to be Brevet-Colonel. The undermentioned Majors to be Brevet Lieutenant-Colonels: H. M J. Perry and (Acting Lieut.-Col.) W. P. MacArthur. Lieut.-Col. M. P. Corkery is placed on the half-pay list on account of ill-health. Major H. G. Pinches retires on retired pay and is granted the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. Captains to be Majors: (Bt. Majors) J. A. Manifold, P. S. Tomlinson, M. J. Williamson, S. S. Dykes, W. H. O’Riordan, C. T. V. Benson, (Acting Lieut.-Col.) W. P. MacArthur, (Acting Major) R. C. Priest, (Temp. Major) A. D. Stirling, G. P. Taylor, R. C. Paris, E. C. Lambkin, 0. W. McSheehy, C. L. Franklin, M. White, J. J. D. Roche, H. F. Joynt, A. S. M. Winder, H. R. Edwards. J. R. Yourell, P. G. M. Elvery, J. J. H. Beckton, W. B. Rennie, and W. Mathieson. Capt. L. F. K. Way retires receiving a gratuity and is granted the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. Temp. Capt. W. L. Hay relinquishes the acting rank of Major. To be Temporary Captains: F. W. Harlow (late temporary Captain) and Temp. Lieut. 0. T. J. C. de H. Clayre. The undermentioned Lieutenants (temporary Captains) to be Captains: P. A. Stewart, J. C. Collins, W. 1. FitzG. Powell, G. W. B. Shaw, and W. C. Mackinnon. TERRITORIAL FORCE. Capts. R. G. Badenoch and A. Robertson to be Majors. Majors J. L. Menzies (late R.A.M.C.) and P. J. Gaffikin (late R.A.M.C., S.R.) to be Captains and relinquish the rank of Major. Capts. H. W. Featherstone (late R.A.M.C., S.R.) and T. Carnwath (from T.F. Res.), to be Captains. Capts. (Acting Lieut.-Col.) J. R. Pooler and (Acting Major) W. C. Gunn relinquish their acting rank on ceasing to be employed. Capt. A. C. Mallace resigns his commission and is granted the rank of Major. Capt. J. H. Barclay resigns his commission and retains the rank of Captain. Capt. T. D. Webster (late R.A.M.C.) to be Lieutenant and to relinquish the rank of Captain. Second Lieut. R. J. Dyson (from T.F. Res., W. York. Regiment) to be Lieutenant.

URBAN VITAL STATISTICS

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347

the previous quinquennium. These increases are

shown by Dr. Dudfield to be 12 per cent. for thesecond year, 21 per cent. for the third year, 70 percent. for the fourth year, and 7 per cent. for thefifth year.We now turn to the administration section of the

report. The author says : " The need of inspection for

the discovery and remedy of sanitary defects was greaterat the end of 1918 than it had ever been before." The

report describes the flooding with sewage caused bythe rainfalls of June 16th and June 28th, 1917, at therate of 1’04 inches and 0’75 inch per hour respectively.The smaller number of children of school age foundon the canal boats seems to indicate that theireducation is receiving more attention. In Paddington,as elsewhere, the black smoke nuisance was left aloneduring the war owing to the bad class of fuel available,and to the skilled stokers being wanted for the services.As dense black smoke from chimneys serving boilerfurnaces is quite unnecessary, it is much to be

hoped that this neglected matter will be taken

up in all parts of the country with vigour. Dr.Dudfield points to the need for a much more

close inspection of the tenement houses-the bugbearof sanitary reformers in every town-and for the

resumption of the " annual cleansings."The report on the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts shows

the extremely unsatisfactory state of the milk-supply.The percentage of adulterated samples taken at therailway stations ranged from 40 to 50 during the waryears. The position of the " preservatives in foods "

question is pointed out, and examples are given ofsausages with over 11 gr. of boric acid per lb., lime-juicecordial containing over 11 gr. per pint of salicylic acid,brawn with over 11 gr. per lb. of boric acid, &c., and itis suggested that the legislature should settle when (ifat all), and in what quantities, these additions to foodshould be permissible.We look forward with interest to Dr. Dudfield’s

second volume dealing with the two post-war years.

URBAN VITAL STATISTICS.

(Week ended Feb. 5th, 1921.)

English and Welsh Towns,-In the 96 English and Welshtowns, with an aggregate population estimated at18 million persons, the annual rate of mortality, whichbad been 12-8, 13-3, and 12’3 in the three- preceding weeks,rose to 13’1 per 1000. In London, with a population of4 million persons, the death-rate was 13-3, or 1’7 per 1000above that recorded in the previous week, while among theremaining towns the rates ranged from 5’8 in Rotherham,6’5 in Acton, and 6’9 in Cambridge, to 20’1 in Warrington,20-7 in West Hartlepool, and 26-8 in Tynemouth. Theprincipal epidemic diseases caused 238 deaths, whichcorresponded to an annual rate of 0-7 per 1000, and

comprised 82 from infantile diarrhaea, 65 from diphtheria,56 from whooping-cough, 19 from measles, 14 from scarletfever, and 2 from enteric fever. Whooping-cough causeda death-rate of 2-0 in Warrington and 2-3 in Wigan, anddiphtheria of 1-9 in Ilford. There were 4018 cases of scarletfever, 2767 of diphtheria, and 1 of small-pox under treat-ment in the Metropolitan Asylums Hospitals and theLondon Fever Hospital, against 4171, 2682, and 1 respec-tively at the end of the previous week. The causes of 36of the 4649 deaths in the 96 towns were uncertified, of which12 were registered in Birmingham, and 3 each in London,West Bromwich, and Leicester.

Scottish Tozvns.-In the 16 largest Scottish towns, with anaggregate population estimated at nearly 2 million persons,the annual rate of mortality, which had been 15-9, 15-8, and16-3 in the three preceding weeks, fell to 14-9 per 1000.The 307 deaths in Glasgow corresponded to an annualrate of 14-5 per 1000, and included 16 from whooping-cough,9 from infantile diarrhoea, 4 from diphtheria, and 1 fromscarlet fever. The 148 deaths in Edinburgh were equal to arate of 17-3 per 1000, and included 2 each from scarlet fever,diphtheria, and infantile diarrhoea, and 1 from measles.

lrish Towns.--The 114 deaths in Dublin corresponded toan annual rate of 14-1, or 1’7 per 1000 below that recordedin the previous week, and included 3 from diphtheria,2 from infantile diarrhoea, and 1 from scarlet fever.The 114 deaths in Belfast were equal to a rate of 14-2 per1000, and included 6 from whooping-cough, 2 from diphtheria,and 1 from infantile diarrhoea.

The Services.THE ARMY DENTAL CORPS.

AT the outbreak of war there was no adequate provisionfor dental services to the troops, and this was keenly felt bythose forming the original Expeditionary Force. The needfor such service was early recognised by those in authority,and in October, 1914, a commencement was made by theappointment of six dental surgeons. With the growth ofthe Army the dental service was increased, and at the timeof the armistice commissions were held by over 800 dentalsurgeons. It is universally acknowledged that the workof these officers added to the efficiency of the forces,and with the return of the Army to a peace basisthe Government has wisely decided to form an ArmyDental Corps. The number of officers has not been stated,but we feel sure with the experience gained in the war anadequate service will be provided. It is possible that whenthese data are forthcoming there will be some who considerthe number insufficient, but in any criticism that maybe offered due consideration should be taken of thedifference between an Army on a war or a peace basis.In peace time the medical examination is more search-ing, and only those dentally fit or able to be easilyrendered dentally fit are accepted. Further, we believethat there is an Army Order stating that no man requiringdentures can be recruited. Under these conditions theappointment of one officer for each 2000 men should besufficient. The rank of officers in the corps is to rangefrom lieutenant to lieutenant-colonel and the pay, althoughon a slightly lower scale than that of the Royal ArmyMedical Corps, should be sufficient to attract the righttype of officer. The formation of an Army Dental Corps isa distinct step in the right direction, and no doubt a schemewill gradually be evolved for its rapid expansion in theevent of war. Provision will be needed for the Territorialsand for a reserve of officers. Arrangements will, we assume,be made to enlist the services of the dental schools with theirwell-equipped laboratories. -

ROYAL NAVAL MEDICAL SERVICE.

The following appointments have been notified: Surg.-Cmdrs.J. H. Lightfoot to Co7a-zceor, J. Boyan to Defiance, C. T. Baxter to.P)’<*st<Mt, additional, for R.N. Recruiting Headquarters.Surg. Lieut.-Cmdr. F. C. Wright to Birmingham.Surg.-Lieuts. F. L. H. MacDowel to Haulbowline Hospital and

Dockyard, and J. C. Brown to Special R.M. Battalion.

ARMY MEDICAL SERVICE.

Col. S. L. Cummins retires on retired pay.

TERRITORIAL FORCE.

Major Sir R. Jones, from 1st Western General Hospital, to beColonel, and to be granted the honorary rank of Major-General.

ROYAL ARMY MEDICAL CORPS.

Lieut.-Col. P. S. Lelean to be Brevet-Colonel.The undermentioned Majors to be Brevet Lieutenant-Colonels:

H. M J. Perry and (Acting Lieut.-Col.) W. P. MacArthur.Lieut.-Col. M. P. Corkery is placed on the half-pay list on account

of ill-health.Major H. G. Pinches retires on retired pay and is granted the

rank of Lieutenant-Colonel.Captains to be Majors: (Bt. Majors) J. A. Manifold, P. S. Tomlinson,

M. J. Williamson, S. S. Dykes, W. H. O’Riordan, C. T. V. Benson,(Acting Lieut.-Col.) W. P. MacArthur, (Acting Major) R. C. Priest,(Temp. Major) A. D. Stirling, G. P. Taylor, R. C. Paris, E. C.Lambkin, 0. W. McSheehy, C. L. Franklin, M. White, J. J. D.Roche, H. F. Joynt, A. S. M. Winder, H. R. Edwards. J. R. Yourell,P. G. M. Elvery, J. J. H. Beckton, W. B. Rennie, and W. Mathieson.Capt. L. F. K. Way retires receiving a gratuity and is granted

the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel.Temp. Capt. W. L. Hay relinquishes the acting rank of Major.To be Temporary Captains: F. W. Harlow (late temporary

Captain) and Temp. Lieut. 0. T. J. C. de H. Clayre.The undermentioned Lieutenants (temporary Captains) to be

Captains: P. A. Stewart, J. C. Collins, W. 1. FitzG. Powell, G. W. B.Shaw, and W. C. Mackinnon.

TERRITORIAL FORCE.

Capts. R. G. Badenoch and A. Robertson to be Majors.Majors J. L. Menzies (late R.A.M.C.) and P. J. Gaffikin (late

R.A.M.C., S.R.) to be Captains and relinquish the rank of Major.Capts. H. W. Featherstone (late R.A.M.C., S.R.) and T. Carnwath

(from T.F. Res.), to be Captains.Capts. (Acting Lieut.-Col.) J. R. Pooler and (Acting Major) W. C.

Gunn relinquish their acting rank on ceasing to be employed.Capt. A. C. Mallace resigns his commission and is granted the

rank of Major.Capt. J. H. Barclay resigns his commission and retains the rank

of Captain.Capt. T. D. Webster (late R.A.M.C.) to be Lieutenant and to

relinquish the rank of Captain.Second Lieut. R. J. Dyson (from T.F. Res., W. York. Regiment)

to be Lieutenant. ’