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Dr. Rajan Rayamajhi, MD Senior Resident School of Public Health and Community Medicine B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences 1 Vital Statistics & Demography

Vital statistics and demography

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Page 1: Vital statistics  and demography

Dr. Rajan Rayamajhi, MD

Senior Resident

School of Public Health and Community Medicine

B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences


Vital Statistics & Demography

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“Vital statistics is defined as that branch of biometry which deals with data and the law of human mortality, morbidity and demography”

vital events are collected, compiled and the resulting statistics are known as Vital Statistics

Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data

Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data


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SOURCES OF POPULATION DATA Census Registration of vital events Sample registration Survey Institutional records


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“ the total process of collecting, compiling and publishing demographic, economic and social data pertaining at a specified time or times, to all persons in a country or delimited territory".(United Nations)

‘Census’ comes from the Latin world ‘Sensere’ means value or tax.

10 year interval

Important source of health information


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Method of census taking

1. De facto census(in fact, whether by right or not) : the method is to list all persons present in the household or other living quarters at midnight of the census day or all who passed the night there.

1. De jure census(by right): all persons who usually live in the household are listed on the form whether they are present or not. Visitors who have a usual residence elsewhere are excluded from the listing but are counted at their usual residence.


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Modern census

Each individual is enumerated separately and characteristics of each persons are recorded separately.

The census covers a precisely defined territory and includes every person present or residing within its scope.

Population is enumerated with a well defined time and date is in terms of a well defined reference period.

The census is taken at regular intervals.


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Uses of census Is the primary sources of basic national

population data required for administrative purposes and many aspects of economic and social planning and research.

Provides information on: trends in population growth. change in age and sex structure cause of fertility, mortality, migration and

urbanization. Useful for estimating, calculating birth and death

rates Provides information on :

Changes in the national occupational and industrial composition

Levels of literacy and educational attainments


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Religion, languages and caste/ethnic composition Analysis of economic development. Future trends of population growth. National, local, public and private planning.

Estimating school going population, military and economic manpower.

Future growth of cities and requirement of food, water, housing and health services.

Number of voters- present and future and many more.

Thus census is contributing to a revolutionary expansion of global economic ,sociological and demographic knowledge.


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Census in Nepal

The first population count was carried out in the year 1911 , since then censuses are being carried out at an interval of more or less 10 years.

The first scientific census with the technical assistance from UN was conducted in 1952/54

1961 census is regarded as the first scientific census of Nepal in terms of internationally accepted definitions of census.

The latest census was carried out in 2011.


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Information in census

Household Information Individual Information


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Analysis of Vital Data

Measurement of Population

Mid year population : (a) Natural increase method

Pt =Po +(B-D) +(I-E) where, Po = total population at last census B = total nos. of birth D = total nos. of death I = total nos. of immigrants into

the region E = total nos. of emigrants from

the region


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b) Geometric progression methodPt =Po (1+r)t

r= ( Pt/Po) 1/ t -1

where, r = growth rate t = time in years


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Rate and Ratio

Rate of the vital events is defined as the ratio of the total numbers of occurrences of the events to the total numbers of person exposed to the risk of occurrences of that events.

Sex ratio= Male population X 100 Female population child women ratio Nos of child<5 yrs X

100 Total female pop 15-49 yrs


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Measurement of Mortality

(a) Crude Death Rate (CDR) = Total death in a given year

X 1000 Average or mid year pop. of a year

(b) Age-specific Death rate (ASDR) Nos. of death at age ’a’ _X 1000 Mid-yrs pop. of a given year

at age ’a’

Crude rate is based on total population while a specific rate is based on the basis of age, sex, cause etc


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(c) Infant Mortality rate (IMR)

= Nos. of infant death in a year X1000 Nos. of live birth in the year

Sensitive indicators Reflect the socio-economic status of the

country Also reflect the medical and health

facilities in a population


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Two parts IMR

1) Neonatal Mortality Rate = Death under one months X 1000 Nos. of live birth

It occurs basically due to the endogenous factors of death

2) Post-neonates Mortality Rate= Death between 1st and 11 complete months

X1000 Nos. of live birth

It is affected by the exogenous factors (environments, sanitation, health facilities, etc)


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(d) Cause-specific death rate = Deaths due to the cause I (di) X1000

Total nos. of death (D)

Useful to analysis the death by cause

(e) Case fatality rate = Death due to the specific disease

X100 total nos. of illness due to that disease


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(f) Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) nos. of death of mother due to the cause

related to maternity X 100000 Total nos. of live birth

Sensitive and important indicator of maternal health


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Measurement of Fertility

(a) Crude Birth Rate (CBR) total nos. of birth in a year X

1000 Mid year pop. in that year (b) General Fertility Rate (GFR) Total nos. of birth in a year X

1000 Average nos. of women in reproductive age group

Fertility?The age of fertility?

Fertility?The age of fertility?


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(c) Age-specific fertility Rate (ASFR)

Nos. of birth to women aged “x” X 1000 Nos. of women aged ”x”

Useful for family planning programme point of view

(d) Age-specific Marital fertility Rate (ASMFR) Nos.of birth to women aged ”x”

X1000 Nos. of married women aged ”x”


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(e) Total fertility Rate (TFR)




The physical meaning of TFR is that it is the expected number of children that a women will bear in her life time, passing through the reproductive age and bearing children according to fixed schedule of fertility


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(f) Gross Reproduction Rate (GRR)

is a measure of population which describe the rate of increase of population over a generation

Defined as the average number of daughter among birth cohort of women, which they will bear in their life time, passing through the reproductive age and bearing children according to fixed schedule of fertility, if they survive to the end of child bearing period


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(g) Net Reproduction Rate (NRR)

Measure of number of daughters which a cohort of girl infant will bear as grow to adulthood and pass through the child period, provided that as they pass through each age they bear children at the rate indicated by a current schedule of age specific fertility rates and from birth till the end of the child bearing period they are subjected to mortality as per life table


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Population statistics of NepalPopulation growth rate- 1.4% / annumSize of household 4.7 persons Electricity- 51% householdSafe drinking water- 90% - urban, 80% - ruralToilet facility- 50% householdLiteracy- 77%- M, 51%- FTFR- 2.6 births / womenGFR 96 births/1000 Women

aged 15-44 yearsCBR 24.3 births/1000 populationAge at 1st marriage- Female-17.2yrs Male 20.2 yrs


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CPR- 49.7%(any method) 43.2%(any modern method)IMR- 46/1000 live birthsUnder 5 MR- 54/1000 live birthsNeonatal Mortality- 33/1000 live birthsChild Mortality- 9/1000 live birthsImmunization coverage:

i. BCG- 96.2%ii. DPT3- 91.4%iii. POLIO3 - 92.2%iv. Measles - 87.7%v. All - 86.6%vi. None - 2.9%


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MMR- 281/100000 live births ANC – 58% (Health professionals) TT2 82% Delivery – 36% babies attended by

Skilled provider28% in a health

facility Nutrition – Children Under Five

Stunting (low height for age) — 41%Wasting (low weight for height) — 11%Underweight (low weight for age) — 29%

Exclusive Breastfeeding – 69.6%


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Table A1: Items Covered in the Schedule 1 of the 2001 Population Census Questionnaire Schedule 1

 Household Information 1. Type of housing unit occupied by the household 2. Tenure of housing unit 3. Whether any land operated for agriculture 4. Area of agricultural land operated 5. Whether any livestock/ poultry raised 6. Number of livestock/ poultry on the holding 7. Whether any female member owned any

house/land - Area of land owned


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8. Whether any female member owned any livestock - Number of livestock (big and small head)

9. Whether household was engaged in small scale non- agricultural activities

10. Main type of small scale activity (other than agriculture)

11. Whether any person absent from household and living abroad

12. Information on the absentee - Sex, age, duration, and reason


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Individual Information

 1. Serial number of household member 2. Full name of the household member 3. Male/Female 4. Age 5. Caste/Ethnicity 6. Relationship to the household head 7. Religion 8. Language spoken- Mother tongue, - Second

language 9. Citizenship 10. Type of disability


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Table A2: Items Covered in the Schedule 2 of the 2001 Population Census Questionnaire Schedule 2

Household Information 1. Main source of drinking water 2. Main fuel used for cooking 3. Main source of light 4. Toilet facility 5. Household conveniences 6. Whether any death in the household 7. Information on the deceased person(s) 8- Sex, age, date, and cause 9. Level of education


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10. Whether currently attending any school 11. Marital status 12. Age at first marriage 13. No. of children ever born alive 14. Any live births during last 12 months 15. Work usually done during the last 12 months 16. No. of months worked during the last 12 months 17. Occupation (type of usual work) 18. Industry (place of usual work) 19. Employment Status 20. Reasons for usually not working 21. Living arrangements of children below 16 years


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Individual Information

1. Serial number of household member 2. Full name and sex of the household member 3. Age 4. Place of birth 5. Duration of stay at the present place 6. Reason for staying in this district 7. Residence five years ago 8. Whether able to read and write